Many struggling middle school–age readers are still developing their reading skills even when explicit reading instruction is usually no longer part of their general education curriculum. Strategies to overcome this challenge are summarized in publications including Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning, ILA Resolutions and Position Statements for Adolescent Literacy, and Writing to Read. These summaries stress the importance of providing students with opportunities to interact with texts through discussion and writing. With the advent of social media and other digital tools, written discussions now occur online. As these environments become more prevalent in classrooms, ensuring that struggling readers have access to the scaffolds and supports that make possible their successful participation is important.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL), a framework based on the neurosciences, holds as a core belief that learner variability is the given. The UDL framework has been used recently to inform the development of an online reading environment for struggling adolescent readers, called Udio. Udio provides opportunities for students to participate in rich online discussions in support of reading comprehension.
I (Lori, a middle school teacher) had the opportunity to use Udio as part of a pilot study to support student interest and motivation in reading. I was excited about providing my students an opportunity to use online discussion as a way to interact more deeply with texts. Right from the beginning, students made it clear that they wanted to make their reading a social event, inviting others to read the same article so that they could engage in a conversation. However, the early online discussions consisted of short statements like “Yeah, I liked that, too” or “I agree.” Students needed additional supports and structures to develop meaningful discussions.
I began by reminding students that they had read folk tales in ELA, and we were going to read a folk tale on Udio. I asked students to read the folk tale article and then post a comment. We had been working on using evidence in our responses, and I was disappointed to see that students hadn’t posted much on Udio. I saw also that some students hadn’t understood the folk tale, so I printed the article, and students read it again, silently. We then had a face-to-face discussion about the article, discussing what happened to the main character and what is the moral of the story. I then asked students to read it one more time, online, and respond to each other using the sentence starters “First I thought…” “Now, I think…” suggested by Steve Graham.
This time, students engaged in a rich online discussion and deepened their understanding of the article. They were able to agree or disagree with each other online and used evidence to support their thinking.
After this experience, students engaged in a conversation about the differences between online and offline discussion. For this conversation, students used their extensive knowledge of online discussions from gaming environments in addition to our class work.
Students’ reported benefits of online discussions included
Students’ reported benefits of face-to-face discussions included
Students found that both types of discussions improved their understanding; however, the online discussions connected with their out of school literacy life online and was very motivating.
Udio is still under research and development. The following are links to tools and environments that support online discussions:
Ensure students have access to texts with Text-to-Speech readers
Provide interesting age-relevant texts
Provide ways for students to share their thinking through online discussions
The contents of this article were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education (#H327M11000). However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
Lori DiGisi is an administrator for Framingham Public Schools and a member of the ILA Board of Directors. Peggy Coyne is a research scientist at CAST, Inc. This article is part of a series from ILA’s Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).
Staying active can be healthy as well as entertaining. Sports can provide both exercise and entertainment in many cases. The following books are about competition, rivalries, physical abilities or the lack of ability, friendship and sportsmanship. Enjoy these new titles that range from swimming to roller derby to the latest sports statistics.
Clothesline Clues to Sports People Play. Kathryn Heling and Deborah Hembrook. 2015. Charlesbridge.
Through rhymed verse and clues hanging from clothespins, various sports are described for young readers to guess. Sports equipment, uniforms, clothing, and balls are just a few examples of the items dangling from the clothesline.
Henry Holton Takes the Ice. Sandra Bradley. 2015. Dial Books for Young Readers/Penguin Group.
Henry is from a “hockey mad” family, but Henry is just not interested in hockey though he loves ice skating. When he discovers his real passion is ice dancing, his grandmother, who was once a figure skater, offers support.
Mustache Baby Meets His Match. Bridget Heos. 2015. Clarion /HMH Group.
Mustache Baby Billy has a play date with Baby Javier. As the two seem to compete in every activity they choose to do like teddy-bear rassling, hobbyhorse riding, magic, and many other supposed-to-be-fun things, play time turns into a competition and Mustache Baby finds himself on the losing side. He discovers one thing he can be first in, however, and friendship triumphs over rivalry.
Baseballogy: Supercool Facts You Never Knew. Kevin Sylvester. Annick.
Baseball trivia fans will enjoy the vast miscellany of information from bats, balls, and gloves to player information, salaries, tickets, and concessions. Though many baseball tidbits are not covered, the cartoon-like illustrations will give young baseball enthusiasts hours of entertainment while adding to their background knowledge of the U.S. national pastime.
Game Time, Mallory! Laurie Friedman. 2015. Darby Creek.
Part of the Mallory series from Darby Creek publishers, this first-person narration is told from Mallory’s experience being part of her fourth-grade basketball team. Hesitating and making mistakes when she first gets into play, her anxiety starts to take over. Through good advice from her coach and friends and family, she starts to improve. Of course, there are those players who love to harass and make fun but eventually Mallory proves her worth on the team.
Growing Up Pedro. Matt Tavares. 2015. Candlewick.
Though the title refers to Pedro Martínez, this story is really about Pedro and his older brother Ramón, as they work hard to become Major League baseball players, leaving their home in Manoguayabo, Dominican Republic. The L.A. Dodgers draft Ramón first, and a few years later Pedro gets his chance. The book continues to discuss their rise to fame even when having to face each other on the pitcher’s mound from opposing teams. Today, the brothers have returned to their homeland and built a new life helping schools and neighborhoods in the Dominican Republic. The watercolor and gouache illustrations create expressive warmth to represent the family bond between these successful brothers.
Legends: The Best Players, Games, and Teams in Baseball. Howard Bryant. 2015. Philomel/Penguin Group.
From ESPN and the world of sports writing and information, author Howard Bryant has collected baseball information that will give every baseball fan the thrill of having all this noted baseball history in one volume. More than just trivia, but actual background information on baseball legends and history, this chronology provides facts on statistics to comebacks to drug-related issues and so much more. Illustrated with photographs and highlights from many seasons, this volume will be enjoyed by sports fans as it precedes the fall publication of the football edition.
A Whole New Ballgame. Phil Bildner. 2015. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Former classroom teacher, author Phil Bildner has written a story about fifth graders and their differences and the labels and stereotypes that often inhabit their world. Rip and his best friend Red, who readers will recognize quickly is on the autism spectrum, are starting school with Mr. Acevedo, a new teacher who is different from any teacher they have had before, with his tattoos and body piercings. Mr. Acevedo loves basketball, as do Rip and Red. When the fifth-grade team gets going, lots of team dynamics are at play. Though Red isn’t much good at the overall game, he is dead-on at the free-throw line. Place Avery, the girl in the wheelchair, on the court, and a whole new set of teamwork issues confronts the team. Enjoy more about this author and his books at his website and blog.
Lost in the Sun. Lisa Graff. 2015. Philomel/Penguin Group.
Trent Zimmerman is wracked with guilt from the freak accident last year when he knocked a hockey puck into the chest of Jared Richards, killing him. Jared had an undiagnosed heart ailment, and the impact from the hockey puck proved fatal. Now Trent must live with Jared’s death, and in his child’s mind he is a horrible person, certain that everyone hates him, including his friends, family, and teachers. His divorced parents don’t make life any easier. He lashes out at everyone, his grades are falling, he gets in fights, and he won’t go out for any sport that had once been the highlight of his life. Things start to change when he meets Fallon Little, a girl with a scar whose vitality for life gives Trent a new way of looking at life.
Roller Girl. Victoria Jamieson. 2015. Dial Books for Young Readers/Penguin.
Written by a real derby girl herself, Victoria Jamieson has created a graphic novel about girls, roller derby, and middle school. When 12-year-old Astrid discovers she loves roller derby and signs up for summer derby camp , her best friend Nicole parts ways with her when she decides to go to dance camp. Astrid proceeds with her plan to become a great derby queen but quickly discovers she might not be as talented as she hoped to be. The hip checks and elbow digs come flying faster than she imagined. She starts to doubt her talent and her entry into middle school in the fall as well as friendships that are shifting in new directions.
The Sixth Man. John Feinstein. 2015. Knopf Books for Young Readers.
This is book two in the Triple Threat series from popular sports author John Feinstein. Basketball season is here, and there is a new kid at school who is going out for the team. Triple threat Alex Myers watches as this new kid, Max Bellotti, brings a whole new level of talent to the basketball team. The upperclassmen players aren’t happy about letting a freshman steal the show while they sit on the bench. When word gets out that Max is gay, the controversy begins. Knowing Max can lead the Lions to a championship, the community response to Max’s sexuality becomes not only an issue for the school board but also an acceptance within the team.
Yard War. Taylor Kitchings. 2015. Wendy Lamb/Penguin Random House.
Set in Jackson, MS, in 1964 just after the passage of the Civil Rights Act, this story is more about the segregated South than about sports, though a football game provides the backdrop for the story. Twelve-year-old Trip lives with his family and his beloved maid, Willie Jane, who is like his second mother. When Trip invites Dee, Willie Jane’s son, to join a game of football at their house, the neighborhood bigotry comes out in a blast of racist remarks and actions. The language is true to the time period of the 1960s and will make readers cringe at this historic look at segregation and prejudice.
Biggie. Derek E. Sullivan. 2015. Albert Whitman.
Henry “Biggie” Abbott is a high school junior in Finch, IA. Biggie has earned his nickname because he weighs over 300 pounds. Finding ways to stay below the radar of ridicule, especially as he lives in the shadow of his professional baseball player father, Biggie creates an online presence to avoid his loneliness in real time. When the fake passes that excuse him from gym class are discovered, he is forced to participate in wiffle ball—where he pitches a perfect game. Now he considers a metamorphosis for himself and develops a goal to earn a spot on the school’s baseball team, pitch a perfect game, and win the heart of the girl he loves.
Hit Count. Chris Lynch. 2015. Algonquin.
Arlo has set goals for his football career from an early age. Through hard and incessant training, he becomes an outstanding football player by his sophomore year. Earning the nickname Starlo, he continues through high school hard hitting, receiving and taking tackles and blows to maintain the football stardom that he so desires. Divided into four sections representing his four years in high school, this book reveals changes in Arlo that readers, as well as his coaches, parents, and girlfriend, will start to see. Taking all those blows to his head is starting to take a toll, and Arlo’s cognitive and emotional abilities are being questioned, suggesting that he is heading down a path to self-destruction.
A Matter of Heart. Amy Fellner Dominy. 2015. Delacorte/Random House.
Sixteen-year-old Abby Lipman is a champion swimmer for her high school swim team and is hopeful for qualifying for the Olympics Trials in the 100-freestyle event. However, Abby has a fainting spell after one of her meets, and after a visit to her doctor, finds out that she has hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a heart condition that has been known to kill top-performing high school athletes. Abby’s whole life, including her best friend Jen and her boyfriend Connor, has been centered on the swimming pool. The author delves into the reactions of all the people in Abby’s life as they respond to this life-altering medical condition. Abby’s decision is her own as she digs to find out who she is without a championship swimming career. Beyond just a sports book, this is a look at self-awareness and projecting toward a future.
Karen Hildebrand is a retired library media specialist and library director for Delaware City Schools in Delaware, OH. She is currently an adjunct professor at Ashland University in Ohio, a reading consultant, and a Holocaust Fellow at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC. She also chairs the Education Curriculum Committee for the Delaware County Historical Society. The review contributions are provided by members of the International Literacy Association’s Children’s Literature and Reading Special Interest Group.
To be fully engaged citizens in a world of local, national, and global events, our students need to be informed and able to sort critically through the ubiquitous flow of news and information. Growing up in Washington, DC, and having a father, grandfather, and uncle in the newspaper business, the news, particularly in print, largely influenced my perspective of the world. Remember “News Fridays” when we were challenged to find, cut out, and bring a newspaper article to class to be shared? Things were so simple then!
I write this article amid a flurry of news events that come to me not only in the newspaper but also as alerts on my phone, iPad, laptop, and digital reader. News about Supreme Court decisions on the affordable care act and marriage equality, news of tragedy and human triumph in Charleston, of a manhunt in New York, attacks in Paris, Tunisia, and Kuwait stream in with discussion and commentary online and on air. We need to equip our students to critically evaluate the flood of information, to make sense of the range of viewpoints, and to gather knowledge to build and support their own perspectives. Of the many resources featuring current events, there are two websites that offer classrooms tools to continue to do the critical thinking necessary to comprehend multiple perspectives.
Newsela offers nonfiction daily news across disciplines. High-interest topics are organized in categories: war and peace, science, kids, money, law, health, arts, and sports, with most recent articles featured on the home page. Each article is available at five Lexile reading levels (3rd–12th) to differentiate learning while having the whole class work on the same content. Advertisement-free articles are updated each day and can be read by students for free using an access code that is given when teachers “create a class.” In this open online version, students can annotate articles, take quizzes, and view their progress. The subscriber version, Newsela Pro, allows teachers to see who read the story, made notes, and took the quiz, tracking individual and class results aligning with Common Core Standards organized in an electronic binder. With Newsela Pro, teachers can customize and review writing prompts.
Other resources include the Newsela Learning and Support webpage to answer questions about the site and to provide resources and teaching ideas. “For Teachers, By Teachers,” a section within Classroom Resources, offers lesson plans and related materials submitted by teachers using Newsela. A Write Toolkit and a Text Sets Toolkit extend the possibilities of using Newsela articles. The text set is a collection of articles about a theme, topic, or related standard that teachers can use or create. Included are teacher-submitted lessons and connections to larger units. A “Pro/Con” text set offers articles that present multiple viewpoints where students could annotate and make comments in gathering notes to compare and contrast perspectives. The Write Toolkit guides teachers to insert writing prompts, offering rubrics and examples.
ProCon.org is an independent nonprofit organization founded to “promote critical thinking, education, and informed citizenship—and to educate without bias” as noted in their mission statement. Founder Steven Markoff provides extensive background information on the about us page. Varying perspectives on 53 controversial issues are presented in readings across content headings, including education, elections and presidents, health and medicine, and media and entertainment. Each issue contains a core question, background information, and specific pro and con arguments. The exploration of issues is student oriented, presenting text along with video, infographics, and political cartoons. The pro and con arguments include excerpts from major newspapers and quotes from experts and politicians. One issue raises the core question “Are Cell Phones Safe?” then offers “Did You Know?” facts from medical and science sources before presenting the pro–con arguments, the evolution of the cell phone science, and some videos related to popular culture. Sources are cited with links, often full-text PDFs.
Teachers can introduce students to the site’s approach to evaluating credibility of sources with their 1–5 star “theoretical expertise ranking.” A “Teachers’ Corner” offers lesson plans with related handouts and suggestions to make the activity easier or harder. Lessons are connected to Common Core, NCTE/IRA, and NCSS standards. Resources are provided that address teaching critical thinking. A collection of 50 illustrated quotes from Aristotle to Howard Zinn offers insights on critical thinking to be used to inspire students to continue to think deeply.
Consider ways to integrate Newsela and ProCon into your efforts to support students in thinking deeply and developing an informed voice. I have used both sites as resources for a class activity in building perspectives on cell phone use in the classroom. We start with a discussion web: “Should cell phones be allowed in the classroom?” We generate our own ideas, then jigsaw several articles, including those from these two sites that further inform on the issue, and then revisit the discussion web. This leads to further discussion and then more group work as we simulate a school board meeting, with each of six groups using what they have read and learned to perhaps step into the shoes of an opinion they may or may not hold and create a speech for or against cell phones in the classroom from the student, teacher, and parent perspectives. By thinking critically, reading, discussing, and evaluating ideas in text and beyond, students have improved their argument as informed citizens in the world.
Denise H. Stuart is a professor in the Curricular & Instructional Studies department at the University of Akron, Ohio. This article is part of a series from the Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).
Few books affect my professional life, but Out of My Mind, by Sharon M. Draper, changed my thoughts on inclusive reading and teaching. In the story, Melody is a wheelchair-bound student frustrated by her inability to express herself. When the “world” discovers what Melody is thinking, through an electronic device, the “world” changes. Draper tells the story from Melody’s point of view, challenging (or reminding) every reader to look at life through a different lens.
I did, as did a paraprofessional I work with, Nicole, after she read the book. Nicole works in our school’s version of room “H5.” She worked in my class supporting a student with autism in the afternoon. During the morning, Nicole worked with Diane in H5, also wheelchair-bound, and with no speaking capacity. She’s a fifth grader by age but a preschooler in size. She communicates through a few hand gestures to signal emotions, such as “I’m happy” or “That’s funny,” when not sticking her tongue out at people or untying shoes for attention.
Once, on my regular visits to H5, I noticed Diane sitting on the floor, part of her physical therapy routine. I wondered, If she has to sit up for physical therapy, why couldn’t she sit with our class during a read-aloud so she could have, at least, exposure to reading and interaction with mainstream peers?
Nicole and I put our heads together about what prevents Diane from listening to and thinking about a story. After a discussion with our H5 staff, Nicole began bringing Diane into class for read-alouds, a modest inclusionary step.
When Diane began reading with us, she remained in her wheelchair, which we thought would be inconspicuous. Diane proved us wrong, immediately! Right in the middle of a humorous part, some of the kids giggled, but Diane broke out in a deep laugh. Perhaps she laughed because of the content, perhaps she laughed at the way I read. Neither Nicole, nor me, nor the class, realized she had the capacity to show such expression, let alone over reading a book! (At the time, we were reading Rump by Liesl Shurtliff.) We were awestruck. Reading and listening had that much power? As Diane enjoyed the reading more, the whole class seemed to take deeper interest in the read-aloud.
In time, we started integrating Diane’s physical therapy into our read-aloud by having her join us on the carpet in our reading area. The class sat along the perimeter; Diane sat in the center with a few kiddos around to embrace her as part of the class. This took time and more books (cue Lester Laminack). Diane slapped legs, untied shoes, and “blurted out.” None of us could contain our laughter! Then Diane would laugh and repeat her actions. She would rub her belly or tap her shoulders, an indication of her pleasure. (Of course she was pleased—she’d become the center of attention!)
Nothing humbled me, Nicole, or the students more than Diane’s expression of thanks. Normally, Nicole picked up Diane and placed her back in her wheelchair. However, in assisting Nicole one day in light of her pregnancy, I picked up Diane. I placed her on my hip, like a toddler. Diane threw her arms around my shoulders and laid her head on my shoulder, which startled me. Then, suddenly, she picked her head up and kissed me on the cheek. After I placed Diane in her wheel chair and put on her seatbelt, Diane again gestured how happy she was. I didn’t think a read-aloud would make that much of a difference. Instead, our read-aloud gave Diane a reason to be happy.
Nicole and I knew we made the right choice.
The pièce de résistance came to pass during the waning days of school on RIF (Reading is Fundamental) Day. I strolled Diane out of H5 and assigned a student to read with her. The student read aloud tentatively, as two others scooched in to share the limelight. Nicole ended up reading, with Diane’s eyes transfixed, intensely listening. Within moments, more kids migrated towards Diane with RIF books. Soon, the entire class enveloped Diane as Nicole read aloud without prompting. Total participation. Total acceptance. Staff from H5, the RIF volunteers, and I observed this phenomenon unfold.
Afterward, beyond excited, several students demonstrated a new hand gesture Diane taught them to indicate she wanted a book read to her (rubbing her hands together and opening them, like releasing a dove). The kids felt the blessing of speaking their peers’ enchanting language—communicating with one another about reading.
This year, our reading workshop will be revolutionized by Diane’s full inclusion! Like last year, Diane will join us for read-aloud. In our sharing circles, classmates will be responsible for her well-being and “on-task behavior.” (This means Diane can’t take her shoes off to entertain the class.) Every day, Diane will be assigned a new partner for independent reading. The pair will read picture books (fairy tales and myths) that allow the reader to explain to Diane what the text means and how pictures relate to text. After all, Diane is entitled to the gift and pleasure of reading.
Diane will never know the same freedom we have or hope for all of our readers; it’s unlikely she will ever be able to take on reading alone. Instead, Diane and her peers can share in the gift of reading and the emotional and spiritual gift of sharing time and space together. She enhances our class all together, not because of her disability, but because we learn to enjoy her membership in class and experience the value of reading. This year, we shared in her joy and passion for reading, one that we desire for all readers.
Reading provides a lens to see the world in color. Diane may not speak, but she can think. Through reading, she gets to learn about struggles characters face, compassion, ethical decisions, and love. Diane is able to be a part of a reading community. What we learned about Diane is that she sees the world in color and she learns just like you and I.
I encourage you to consider who you can invite into your daily read-alouds. If books bring the world to us or allow us to escape to another world, shouldn’t every child be allowed this opportunity? Nicole and I will never know what the reading does biologically for Diane. What we do know is how immensely happy she is to be in our classrooms listening, laughing, and learning with her peers and fellow readers. Justin Stygles is a sixth-grade language arts teacher and IRA Advisory Committee of Teachers (ACT) committee member based in Norway, ME. He also serves as the state’s Maine Reading Association coordinator.
Students communicate and acquire information in new and complex ways. With extraordinary advances in technology and a growing emphasis on creation and innovation, the educational needs of 21st-century learners are constantly evolving. As a result, traditional definitions of reading, writing, and communication are being redefined to include new multimodal literacies. Pedagogical practices are being reinvented as well as reimagined to best support students’ rapidly changing needs. Teacher education programs play a critical role in preparing preservice teachers with the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to integrate these new literacies and digital technologies into instruction.
In order to support students’ ongoing literacy needs, teacher educator programs must create contexts and learning spaces that enable preservice teachers to examine their beliefs regarding use of technology in teaching. Though programs often strive to connect technology and curricular content in practice, they are often challenged to develop instructional pedagogies employing new literacies that can adapt as quickly as technology changes. Programs face numerous barriers to effective preparation in the area of multimodal literacy.
Many preservice teachers enter education programs with deeply held belief systems regarding uses of technology in literacy instruction following their many years as students of conventional teaching practices. Often viewing literacy as a print-bound process, preservice teachers exhibit reluctance in using technology for educational purposes and formal teaching practices. Understanding the predictive powers of self-efficacy and positive attitudes toward technology, programs commonly create stand-alone technology integration courses that model use of multimodal formats and authentic, hands-on learning experiences. Though these courses are designed to show construction of knowledge in the area of technology integration, they are often presented in isolation, unable to demonstrate the importance of incorporation of practice across the curriculum and throughout content areas.
Programs can work to bridge the gap between knowledge and instruction in the area of multimodal literacy and integration of digital technologies. By infusing innovative practices that prioritize exploration of an increasingly textual world across all areas of coursework, teacher education programs can prepare preservice teachers to inspire inquiry and transform learning in their future classrooms.
The following ideas are offered as shifts of practice that teacher education programs can consider in preparing pre-service teachers to integrate multimodal literacies into instruction.
Provide distributed practice
Programs that extend learning past stand-alone technology courses can demonstrate the transformative power of new literacies in learning. By offering meaningful practice with digital technologies throughout all courses of study, teacher education programs provide authentic modeling of multimodal literacy integration across the curriculum. Preservice teachers can be empowered to explore and design their own paths to understanding across contexts and connected experiences. Offered as standards of practice, these infused methodologies have the potential to extend and enhance the learning of preservice teachers and also can serve as frameworks for instruction in their classrooms of the future.
Design collaborative learning spaces
Learning space design can act as a catalyst to support sustainable change in teaching and learning. By reexamining the landscape of the classroom and methods of instruction, teachers education programs can promote engagement and afford opportunities of networked collaboration. New pedagogies focused on student-centered practices and active participation evolve the role of the teacher from distant lecturer to facilitator of learning. Shifting roles of teachers and students can allow everyone to be a part of the exchange of ideas and sharing of knowledge. Together in a technology-supported learning space, everyone can explore as curators and composers of multimodal literacies.
Focus on the verbs
Teacher education programs seeking to prepare preservice teachers for classrooms of the future can positively affect practice by shifting focus from the ever-changing “nouns” of education to the actionable “verbs” of discovery. Empowering students to engage and create and connect and explore can guide real-time instructional decision making in selection of materials and methodologies. Interest-driven projects that prioritize student voice, creativity, and choice of delivery can allow preservice teachers to connect theory to practice in powerful and personalized ways.
Encourage inquiry and investigate the world
By asking students to seek solutions to problems of global significance, teacher education programs can encourage preservice teachers to engage in deep learning through a process of inquiry and investigation. Meaningful topics with profound disciplinary and interdisciplinary bases can provide opportunities for students to think critically. Preservice teachers can use multimodal literacies to examine problems, gather information, and communicate decisions. Through this process of inquiry, preservice teachers can employ digital technologies and move along a continuum of technology integration. The creation of digital artifacts can offer transparency of perspectives and sharing of solutions, and the learning can inspire change that is relevant and significant.
Support self-efficacy through reflection
Dedication of time and thought for discussion can place focus on metacognitive thinking and reflection. Teacher education programs can promote self-efficacy of preservice teachers by encouraging innovation, inspiring curiosity, and providing safe opportunities for taking risks through exploration of ideas. Preservice teachers can be invited to explore together deeply held belief systems and discover ways to weave multimodal literacies into practice to enhance learning and expression of perspectives. Together, teacher education programs and preservice teachers can redefine instructional practices to inspire collective change on their quests to make a difference in classrooms of today and of the future.
Jennifer Williams is the cofounder and lead program developer for Calliope Global. Calliope Global works with schools, universities, and organizations from around the world.