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Standards


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Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Standard 1

Foundational Knowledge

Candidates understand the theoretical and evidence-based foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction.

Foundational knowledge is at the core of preparing individuals for roles in the reading profession and encompasses the major theories, research, and best practices that share a consensus of acceptance in the reading field. Individuals who enter the reading profession should understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and develop the capacity to act on that knowledge responsibly. Elements of the Foundational Knowledge Standard set expectations in the domains of theoretical and practical knowledge, and in developing dispositions for the active, ethical use of professional knowledge. Expectations are founded on the concept of a profession as both a technical and moral enterprise, that is, competent performance for the betterment of society.

The following are the major assumptions of the Standards 2010 Committee for developing this standard and its elements:

  • Based on several decades of cognitive science research on human learning, knowledge is domain specific and contextualized. Social experience and context play a role in the construction and development of knowledge.
  • Knowledge in the reading field includes archival research-based knowledge and practical knowledge that reflects the wisdom of practice.
  • Members of a professional community develop the capacity to learn from experience and contemplate their own practices in systematic ways.
  • Knowledge represents the currently shared content of the reading field, subject to change over time as new knowledge and understandings are acquired.

Elements

Element 1.1

Candidates understand major theories and empirical research that describe the cognitive, linguistic, motivational, and sociocultural foundations of reading and writing development, processes, and components, including word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.

Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to, the following for each professional role.


Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Identify examples of reading instruction for developing word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.
  • Identify conditions that support individual motivation to read and write (e.g., access to print, choice, challenge, interests, and family and community knowledge) as factors that enhance literacy learning for all.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Recognize major theories of reading and writing processes and development, including first and second literacy acquisition and the role of native language in learning to read and write in a second language.
  • Explain language and reading development across elementary years (e.g., word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections) using supporting evidence from theory and research.
  • Demonstrate knowledge about transfer of skills from the primary or home language (L1) to English (L2) as it affects literacy learning across these components.
  • Explain the research and theory about effective learning environments that support individual motivation to read and write (e.g., choice, challenge, interests, and access to traditional print, digital, and online resources).
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Recognize major theories and research evidence of reading and writing processes and development in adolescence, including first and second literacy acquisition and the role of native language in learning to read and write in a second language.
  • Identify and explain the specific reading and writing expectations of their content areas as described in national and state standards.
  • Explain the research and theory of learning environments that support individual motivation to read and write.
  • Value the scholarship of the reading profession and seek to understand the theoretical knowledge base in relation to their disciplinary areas.
  • Understand the process of identifying and differentiating the range of literacy needs of adolescent readers.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Read the scholarship of the reading profession and recognize the theoretical knowledge base about the reading and writing of adolescents.
  • Explain major theories of reading and writing processes and development in adolescents using supporting research evidence, including the relationship between culture and the native language of English learners as a support system in their learning to read and write in English.
  • Explain language and reading development during adolescence (e.g., word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections) with supporting evidence from theory and research.
  • Explain the research and theory of learning environments that support individual motivation to read and write.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Interpret major theories of reading and writing processes and development to understand the needs of all readers in diverse contexts.
  • Analyze classroom environment quality for fostering individual motivation to read and write (e.g., access to print, choice, challenge, and interests).
  • Demonstrate a critical stance toward the scholarship of the profession.
  • Read and understand the literature and research about factors that contribute to reading success (e.g., social, cognitive, and physical).
  • Inform other educators about major theories of reading and writing processes, components, and development with supporting research evidence, including information about the relationship between the culture and native language of English learners as a support system in their learning to read and write in English.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Critique major theories of reading and writing processes, components, and development across the life span using research evidence.
  • Analyze research evidence about language and reading development in all areas, including knowledge about transfer of skills from the primary or home language (L1) to English (L2) as it affects literacy learning for English learners across those components.
  • Create environments in the university classroom that foster individual motivation to read and write (e.g., access to print, choice, challenge, and interests) and teach teachers how to create such environments.
  • Evaluate knowledge claims of reading research, critique research findings, and generate alternative hypotheses.
Administrator Candidates
  • Recognize major theories and research evidence related to reading and writing development and instruction.
  • Identify specific reading and writing expectations for pre-K–12 students as described in national and state standards.
  • Plan for environments that support individual motivation to read and write (e.g., access to print, choice, challenge, and interests).
  • Value the scholarship of the reading profession and seek to understand the theoretical knowledge base in relation to their administrative charges.

Element 1.2

Candidates understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and changes over time in the perceptions of reading and writing development, processes, and components.


Education Support Personnel Candidates Not applicable
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Identify major milestones in reading scholarship and interpret them in light of the current social context.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates Not applicable
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Identify major milestones in reading scholarship and interpret them in light of the current social context.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Interpret and summarize historically shared knowledge (e.g., instructional strategies and theories) that addresses the needs of all readers.
  • Inform educators and others about the historically shared knowledge base in reading and writing and its role in reading education.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Analyze historically shared knowledge in reading and writing scholarship and explain its role in an evolving professional knowledge base.
  • Reevaluate the relevance of historically shared knowledge for meeting traditional print, digital, and online reading education goals.
Administrator Candidates
  • Identify evidence-based instructional approaches, techniques, and procedures relevant to the reading and writing demands of pre-K–12 instruction.
  • Critically examine practices that contribute to applied knowledge of reading education.

 

Element 1.3

Candidates understand the role of professional judgment and practical knowledge for improving all students’ reading development and achievement.


Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in literacy instruction and when working with other professionals.
  • Use multiple sources of information to guide instructional planning to improve reading achievement of all students.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
  • Use multiple sources of information to guide instructional planning to improve reading achievement of all students.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
  • Use multiple sources of information to guide instructional planning to improve reading achievement of all students.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Model fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
  • Communicate the importance of fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in literacy instruction and professional behavior.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Communicate the importance of fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in professional activity.
Administrator Candidates
  • Encourage reading professionals to show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
  • Model such behaviors when working with professional staff.

Research and Supporting Literature

The content of Standard 1 reflects our understanding of the professional literature in the preparation of individuals for roles in the reading field, and describes the foundational body of knowledge that individuals need to be active participants and contributors in the reading professional community. The following are representative research and literature consulted by the Standards 2010 Committee in developing this standard:

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2008). Developing reading and writing in second-language learners: Lessons from the report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. New York: Routledge; Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics; Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Clay, M.M. (1985). The early detection of reading difficulties (3rd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hammerness, K., & Darling-Hammond, L. (with Grossman, P., Rust, F., & Shulman, L.). (2005). The design of teacher education programs. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 390–441). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McKenna, M.C., & Stahl, K.A.D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Pearson, P.D. (2004). American reading education since 1967. In Preparing reading professionals: A collection from the International Reading Association (pp. 6–40). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. (Reprinted from American reading instruction, pp. 419–486, by N.B. Smith, Ed., 2002, Newark, DE: International Reading Association)

Rosenblatt, L.M. (1994). The transactional theory of reading and writing. In R.B. Ruddell, M.R. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 1057–1092). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Shulman, L.S. (1998). Theory, practice, and the education of professionals. The Elementary School Journal, 98(5), 511–526. doi:10.1086/461912

Snow, C.E., Griffin, P., & Burns, M.S. (Eds.). (2005). Knowledge to support the teaching of reading: Preparing teachers for a changing world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Stanovich, P.J., & Stanovich, K.E. (2003). Using research and reason in education: How teachers can use scientifically based research to make curricular and instructional decisions. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy, U.S. Department of Education.

Status of Reading Instruction Institute & International Reading Association. (2007). Teaching reading well: A synthesis of the International Reading Association’s research on teacher preparation for reading instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Thornton, H. (2006). Dispositions in action: Do dispositions make a difference in practice? Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(2), 53–68.

Tracey, D.H., & Morrow, L.M. (2006). Lenses on reading: An introduction to theories and models. New York: Guilford.

Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Ed. & Trans., Rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2007). Schooling by design: Mission, action, and achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.