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Standards


Note: To purchase the PDF version of Standards 2010, click here.

Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher

Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teachers are professionals responsible for teaching reading and writing to students in either a self-contained or departmentalized setting at the pre-K or elementary levels. These professionals may also be responsible for teaching content such as social studies or science. Regardless of their role, these individuals must be able to provide effective instruction for all students in the classroom, from those who struggle with learning to read to those who need enrichment experiences. These teachers collaborate with reading specialists and other professionals to improve instruction and to modify the physical and social environments as needed.

For certification, a Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidate must have the following:

  • An undergraduate or graduate degree with a major in early childhood/elementary education
  • Reading and reading-related course work (typically 9–12 credits) that enables the candidate to demonstrate mastery of elements identified in Standards 2010

Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge

Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates understand the theoretical and evidence-based foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
1.1: Understand major theories and empirical research that describe the cognitive, linguistic, motivational, and sociocultural foundations of reading and writing development, processes, and components, including word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.
  • Recognize major theories of reading and writing processes and development, including first and second literacy acquisition and the role of native language in learning to read and write in a second language.
  • Explain language and reading development across elementary years (e.g., word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections) using supporting evidence from theory and research. [McKenna and Stahl (2009) define reading as including word recognition, language comprehension, and strategic knowledge. See the Glossary for their definition of cognitive model of reading.]
  • Demonstrate knowledge about transfer of skills from the primary or home language (L1) to English (L2) as it affects literacy learning across these components.
  • Explain the research and theory about effective learning environments that support individual motivation to read and write (e.g., choice, challenge, interests, and access to traditional print, digital, and online resources).
1.2: Understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and changes over time in the perceptions of reading and writing development, processes, and components.
  • Identify major milestones in reading scholarship and interpret them in light of the current social context.
1.3: Understand the role of professional judgment and practical knowledge for improving all students' reading development and achievement.
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in literacy instruction and when working with other professionals.
  • Use multiple sources of information to guide instructional planning to improve reading achievement of all students.

Standard 2: Curriculum and Instruction

Candidates use instructional approaches, materials, and an integrated, comprehensive, balanced curriculum to support student learning in reading and writing.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
2.1: Use foundational knowledge to design or implement an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum.
  • Explain how the reading and writing curriculum is related to local, state, and professional standards.
  • Implement the curriculum based on students' prior knowledge, world experiences, and interests.
  • Evaluate the curriculum to ensure that instructional goals and objectives are met.
  • Plan with other teachers and support personnel in designing, adjusting, and modifying the curriculum to meet students' needs in traditional print, digital, and online contexts.
2.2: Use appropriate and varied instructional approaches, including those that develop word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.
  • Select and implement instructional approaches based on evidence-based rationale, student needs, and purposes for instruction.
  • Differentiate instructional approaches to meet students' reading and writing needs.
  • Implement and evaluate instruction in each of the following areas: concepts of print, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, critical thinking, motivation, and writing.
  • Incorporate traditional print, digital, and online resources as instructional tools to enhance student learning.
  • As needed, adapt instructional approaches and materials to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners.
2.3: Use a wide range of texts (e.g., narrative, expository, and poetry) from traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Guided by evidence-based rationale, select and use quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Build an accessible, multilevel, and diverse classroom library that contains traditional print, digital, and online classroom materials.

 

Standard 3: Assessment and Evaluation

Candidates use a variety of assessment tools and practices to plan and evaluate effective reading and writing instruction.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
3.1: Understand types of assessments and their purposes, strengths, and limitations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of established purposes for assessing student performance, including tools for screening, diagnosis, progress monitoring, and measuring outcomes.
  • Describe strengths and limitations of a range of assessment tools and their appropriate uses.
  • Recognize the basic technical adequacy of assessments (e.g., reliability, content, and construct validity).
  • Explain district and state assessment frameworks, proficiency standards, and student benchmarks.
3.2: Select, develop, administer, and interpret assessments, both traditional print and electronic, for specific purposes.
  • Select or develop appropriate assessment tools to monitor student progress and to analyze instructional effectiveness. [These tools may include standardized or more subjective measures, such as rubrics, observations, surveys, and anecdotal records.]
  • Administer classroom and school-based assessments using consistent, fair, and equitable assessment procedures.
  • Interpret and use assessment data to analyze individual, group, and classroom performance and progress.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and with support personnel to discuss interpretation of assessment data and their uses in responding to student needs and strengths.
3.3: Use assessment information to plan and evaluate instruction.
  • Use assessment data to plan instruction systematically and to select appropriate traditional print, digital, and online reading resources.
  • Use assessment data to evaluate students' responses to instruction and to develop relevant next steps for teaching.
  • Interpret patterns in classroom and individual students' data.
  • Collaborate with other reading professionals to modify instruction and to plan and evaluate interventions based on assessment data.
3.4: Communicate assessment results and implications to a variety of audiences.
  • Communicate assessment purposes and a summary of results to appropriate audiences (i.e., student, parents or guardians, colleagues, and administrators).
  • Use assessment data and student work samples to discuss relevant implications and goals for reading and writing instruction.

 

Standard 4: Diversity

Candidates create and engage their students in literacy practices that develop awareness, understanding, respect, and a valuing of differences in our society.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
4.1: Recognize, understand, and value the forms of diversity that exist in society and their importance in learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which diversity can be used to strengthen a literate society, making it more productive, more adaptable to change, and more equitable.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of urban, suburban, and rural environments on local culture, language, and learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which the various forms of diversity interact with reading and writing development.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between first- and second-language acquisition and literacy development.
4.2: Use a literacy curriculum and engage in instructional practices that positively impact students' knowledge, beliefs, and engagement with the features of diversity.
  • Assess the various forms of diversity that exist in students as well as in the surrounding community.
  • Provide differentiated instruction and instructional materials, including traditional print, digital, and online resources, that capitalize on diversity.
  • Provide instruction and instructional materials that are linked to students' backgrounds and facilitate a learning environment in which differences and commonalities are valued (e.g., use literature that reflects the experiences of marginalized groups and the strategies they use to overcome challenges).
  • Provide instruction and instructional formats that engage students as agents of their own learning.
4.3: Develop and implement strategies to advocate for equity.
  • Provide students with linguistic, academic, and cultural experiences that link their communities with the school.
  • Advocate for change in societal practices and institutional structures that are inherently biased or prejudiced against certain groups.
  • Demonstrate how issues of inequity and opportunities for social justice activism and resiliency can be incorporated into the literacy curriculum.

Standard 5: Literate Environment

Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
5.1: Design the physical environment to optimize students' use of traditional print, digital, and online resources in reading and writing instruction.
  • Arrange their classrooms to provide easy access to books, other materials, and specific areas designed for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students' changing needs.
5.2: Design a social environment that is low risk and includes choice, motivation, and scaffolded support to optimize students' opportunities for learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate a respectful attitude toward all learners and understand the roles of choice, motivation, and scaffolded support in creating low-risk and positive social environments.
  • Model and teach students routines for establishing and maintaining positive social environments (e.g., appropriate ways to interact with each other and adults).
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and given many opportunities to use English.
5.3: Use routines to support reading and writing instruction (e.g., time allocation, transitions from one activity to another; discussions, and peer feedback).
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for reading and writing instruction using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create and use routines to support instructional and social goals (e.g., regular steps for sharing and responding to stories, formats for reporting, and efficient transitions among activities, spaces, and online resources).
5.4: Use a variety of classroom configurations (i.e., whole class, small group, and individual) to differentiate instruction.
  • Use evidence-based rationale to make and monitor flexible instructional grouping options for students.
  • Model and scaffold procedures, so students learn to work effectively in a variety of classroom configurations and activities.
  • Use various practices to differentiate instruction (e.g., cooperative learning, literature circles, partner work, and research/investigation groups).

 

Standard 6: Professional Learning and Leadership

Candidates recognize the importance of, demonstrate, and facilitate professional learning and leadership as a career-long effort and responsibility.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
6.1: Demonstrate foundational knowledge of adult learning theories and related research about organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the factors that influence adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
6.2: Display positive dispositions related to their own reading and writing and the teaching of reading and writing, and pursue the development of individual professional knowledge and behaviors.
  • Display positive reading and writing behaviors and serve as a model for students.
  • Promote student appreciation of the value of reading traditional print, digital, and online resources in and out of school.
  • Work collaboratively and respectfully with families, colleagues, and community members to support students' reading and writing.
  • Identify specific questions and goals about the teaching of reading and writing and plan specific strategies for finding answers to questions.
  • Implement plans and use results for their own professional growth.
  • Join professional organizations related to reading and writing and participate as members.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
6.3: Participate in, design, facilitate, lead, and evaluate effective and differentiated professional development programs.
  • Recognize the importance of professional development for improving reading and writing in schools.
  • Participate individually and with colleagues in professional development programs at the school and district levels.
  • Apply learning from professional development to instructional practices.
6.4: Understand and influence local, state, or national policy decisions.
  • Are informed about important professional issues.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes.

Reference

McKenna, M.C., & Stahl, K.A.D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.