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Standards


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Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Standard 6

Professional Learning and Leadership

Candidates recognize the importance of, demonstrate, and facilitate professional learning and leadership as a career-long effort and responsibility.

The Professional Learning and Leadership Standard is based on a commitment by all reading professionals to lifelong learning. Professionals learn in many different ways, for example, individual learning through activities such as reading, pursuing advanced degrees, and attending professional meetings. The elements featured in this standard include an emphasis on positive dispositions, individual and collaborative learning, the ability to design and evaluate professional learning experiences, the importance of advocacy, and a need for knowledge about adult learning and school leadership. Also, learning is often collaborative and occurs in the workplace through grade-level meetings, academic team meetings, workshops, study groups, and so forth.

The following are the major assumptions of the Standards 2010 Committee for developing this standard and its elements:

  • Effective professional learning is evidence based in ways that reflect both competent and critical use of relevant research and is thoughtfully planned, ongoing, differentiated, and embedded in the work of all faculty members.
  • Effective professional learning is inclusive and collaborative across parents or guardians, the community, and all school staff, including education support personnel, classroom teachers, specialized personnel, supervisors, and administrators.
  • Effective professional learning is focused on content determined by careful consideration and assessment of the needs of students, teachers, parents or guardians, and the larger community of stakeholders.
  • Effective professional learning is supportive of the need for instruction that is responsive to the range of diversity.
  • Effective professional learning is grounded in research related to adult learning and organizational change as well as research on reading acquisition, development, assessment, and instruction.
  • Effective professional learning in schools requires collaboration, is job embedded, builds trust, and empowers teachers, and those who lead such efforts must have effective interpersonal, leadership, and communication skills.

Elements

Element 6.1

Candidates demonstrate foundational knowledge of adult learning theories and related research about organizational change, professional development, and school culture.

Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to, the following for each professional role.

Education Support Personnel Candidates Not applicable.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the factors that influence adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate awareness of the factors that influence adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the factors that influence adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Use literature and research findings about adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture in working with teachers and other professionals.
  • Use knowledge of students and teachers to build effective professional development programs.
  • Use the research base to assist in building an effective, schoolwide professional development program.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Examine and critique the literature on organizational change, adult learning, professional development, and school culture.
  • Have knowledge of interinstitutional collaboration and cooperation.
Administrator Candidates
  • Connect foundational knowledge associated with educational leadership to the organizational and instructional knowledge required to implement effective, schoolwide reading programs.
  • Apply knowledge from a variety of disciplines to promote positive school cultures and climates for students and adults.

 

Element 6.2

Candidates display positive dispositions related to their own reading and writing and the teaching of reading and writing, and pursue the development of individual professional knowledge and behaviors.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Respect the importance of confidentiality.
  • Care for the well-being of students.
  • Demonstrate a belief that all students can learn.
  • Demonstrate a curiosity and interest in practice that results in student learning.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Display positive reading and writing behaviors and serve as a model for students.
  • Promote student appreciation of the value of reading traditional print, digital, and online resources in and out of school.
  • Work collaboratively and respectfully with families, colleagues, and community members to support students’ reading and writing.
  • Identify specific questions and goals about the teaching of reading and writing and plan specific strategies for finding answers to questions.
  • Implement plans and use results for their own professional growth.
  • Join professional organizations related to reading and writing and participate as members.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Display positive reading and writing behaviors and serve as models for students.
  • Display positive dispositions related to their own reading and writing and use reading and writing to promote student learning.
  • Help students meet the specific demands of traditional print, digital, and online resources required for content learning.
  • Promote student understanding of the value of reading traditional print, digital, and online resources in and out of school.
  • Identify specific questions and goals about literacy and the learning of content and plan strategies for finding answers to questions.
  • Implement plans and use results for their own growth.
  • Are members of professional content area organizations.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Display positive reading and writing behaviors and serve as models for students.
  • Understand the families’ and community’s roles in helping students apply reading and writing skills to content learning.
  • Work with families, colleagues, and the community to support student learning.
  • Promote student understanding of the value of reading traditional print, digital, and online resources in and out of school.
  • Identify specific questions and goals about the teaching of reading and writing and plan specific strategies for finding answers to those questions.
  • Carry out plans and use results for their own professional growth.
  • Are members of professional organizations related to reading and writing.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Articulate the research base related to the connections among teacher dispositions, student learning, and the involvement of parents, guardians, and the community.
  • Promote the value of reading and writing in and out of school by modeling a positive attitude toward reading and writing with students, colleagues, administrators, and parents and guardians.
  • Join and participate in professional literacy organizations, symposia, conferences, and workshops.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal, communication, and leadership skills.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Promote a positive and ethical learning environment with an emphasis on collaboration and respect that responds to students, families, teachers, and communities.
  • Demonstrate strong interpersonal and communication skills, as evident in interactions with all stakeholders.
  • Provide opportunities for candidates and reading professionals to share their own reading and writing.
  • Conduct research and communicate results for appropriate purposes and audiences.
  • Join and regularly participate in professional literacy organizations, conferences, symposia, and workshops.
  • Prepare and coach candidates and reading professionals to use various forms of research to inform practice.
Administrator Candidates
  • Ensure positive and ethical learning contexts for reading that respect students, families, teachers, colleagues, and communities.
  • Foster community involvement in schoolwide literacy initiatives.
  • Encourage and support teachers and reading professionals to develop their knowledge, skills, and dispositions.
  • Provide leadership by participating in ongoing professional development with staff and others in leadership positions.
  • Encourage use of technology among teachers and other personnel for their own learning and for improving student learning.

 

Element 6.3

Candidates participate in, design, facilitate, lead, and evaluate effective and differentiated professional development programs.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Participate with teachers in professional development experiences designed to improve student learning.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Recognize the importance of professional development for improving reading and writing in schools.
  • Participate individually and with colleagues in professional development programs at the school and district levels.
  • Apply learning from professional development to instructional practices.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Recognize the importance of professional development for improving academic learning through reading and writing in schools.
  • Participate individually and with colleagues in professional development programs at the school and district levels.
  • Apply learning from professional development to instructional practices.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Recognize the importance of professional development for improving reading and writing in schools.
  • Participate individually and with colleagues in professional development programs at the school and district levels.
  • Apply learning from professional development to instructional practices.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Collaborate in, leading, and evaluating professional development activities for individuals and groups of teachers. Activities may include working individually with teachers (e.g., modeling, coplanning, coteaching, and observing) or with groups (e.g., teacher workshops, group meetings, and online learning).
  • Demonstrate the ability to hold effective conversations (e.g., for planning and reflective problem solving) with individuals and groups of teachers, work collaboratively with teachers and administrators, and facilitate group meetings.
  • Support teachers in their efforts to use technology in literacy assessment and instruction.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Know and critique the research on professional development.
  • Prepare and coach reading professionals to collaboratively plan, lead, and evaluate professional development activities at the grade, school, district, community, and state levels.
  • Participate in professional development at the national level through attendance and presentation at professional meetings, conferences, and symposia.
Administrator Candidates
  • Work collaboratively with school staff to plan, implement, and evaluate sustained professional development programs to meet established needs at grade, discipline, and individual levels.
  • Provide varied professional development opportunities for those having responsibility for student learning.

 

Element 6.4

Candidates understand and influence local, state, or national policy decisions.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Recognize that policy mandates influence their responsibilities.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Are informed about important professional issues.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Are informed about important professional issues.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Are informed about important professional issues.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Demonstrate an understanding of local, state, and national policies that affect reading and writing instruction.
  • Write or assist in writing proposals that enable schools to obtain additional funding to support literacy efforts.
  • Promote effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders, including parents and guardians, teachers, administrators, policymakers, and community members.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Read and critique the literature about state and federal initiatives that have implications for reading and writing instruction.
  • Provide opportunities for candidates and reading professionals to learn about these initiatives and their implications for reading and writing instruction.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.
Administrator Candidates
  • Promote effective communication and collaboration among parents and guardians, community members, and school staff.
  • Understand the importance of hiring highly qualified literacy personnel, providing clear role descriptions for literacy positions, and supporting individuals in those positions.
  • Advocate at local, state, and federal levels for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.

 

Research and Supporting Literature

The following are representative research and literature consulted by the Standards 2010 Committee in developing this standard:

Allington, R.L., & Walmsley, S.A. (Eds.). (1995). No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in America’s elementary schools. New York: Teachers College Press; Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Bean, R.M. (2009). The reading specialist: Leadership for the classroom, school, and community (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Bean, R.M., Swan, A.L., & Knaub, R. (2003). Reading specialists in schools with exemplary reading programs: Functional, versatile, and prepared. The Reading Teacher, 56(5), 446–455.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1999). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Desimone, L.M., Smith, T.M., & Ueno, K. (2006). Are teachers who need sustained, content-focused professional development getting it? An administrator’s dilemma. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(2), 179–215. doi:10.1177/0013161X04273848

Dozier, C. (2006). Responsive literacy coaching: Tools for creating and sustaining purposeful change. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Duffy, G.G. (2004). Teachers who improve reading achievement: What research says about what they do and how to develop them. In D.S. Strickland & M.L. Kamil (Eds.), Improving reading achievement through professional development (pp. 3–22). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.

Garet, M.S., Porter, A.C., Desimone, L., Birman, B.F., & Yoon, K.S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945. doi:10.3102/00028312038004915

Lambert, L. (2003). Leadership capacity for lasting school improvement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lyons, C.A., & Pinnell, G.S. (2001). Systems for change in literacy education: A guide to professional development. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Pritchard, R.J., & Marshall, J.C. (2002). Professional development in ‘healthy’ vs. ‘unhealthy’ districts: Top 10 characteristics based on research. School Leadership & Management, 22(2), 113–141. doi:10.1080/1363243022000007719

Snow, C.E., Griffin, P., & Burns, M.S. (Eds.). (2005). Knowledge to support the teaching of reading: Preparing teachers for a changing world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Strickland, D.S., & Kamil, M.L. (Eds.). (2004). Improving reading achievement through professional development. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.

Sturtevant, E.G. (2003). The literacy coach: A key to improving teaching and learning in secondary schools. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Thornton, H. (2006). Dispositions in action: Do dispositions make a difference in practice? Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(2), 53–68.

Vogt, M., & Shearer, B.A. (2007). Reading specialists and literacy coaches in the real world (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Walpole, S., & McKenna, M.C. (2004). The literacy coach’s handbook: A guide to research-based practice. New York: Guilford.

Wepner, S.B., & Strickland, D.S. (Eds.). (2008). The administration and supervision of reading programs (4th ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.