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Standards


Note: To purchase the PDF version of Standards 2010, click here.

Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher

A Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher is a professional responsible for teaching reading at the middle or high school level for all or part of the day. Reading classroom teachers are responsible for teaching one or more reading classes and might have multiple responsibilities, such as teaching reading to students who would benefit from such instruction (e.g., increasing vocabulary and learning general study skills). Another responsibility would be to assess students to determine their reading needs and strengths. These professionals collaborate with reading specialists and other professionals to improve instruction and to modify the physical and social environments as needed.

For certification, a Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidate must have the following:

  • An undergraduate or graduate degree that includes a major in a specific discipline
  • Additional reading and reading-related courses, typically 12–15 undergraduate or graduate credits, including adolescent literacy and teaching reading and writing in the content areas.

Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge

Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates understand the theoretical and evidence-based foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
1.1: Understand major theories and empirical research that describe the cognitive, linguistic, motivational, and sociocultural foundations of reading and writing development, processes, and components, including word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.
  • Read the scholarship of the reading profession and recognize the theoretical knowledge base about the reading and writing of adolescents.
  • Explain major theories of reading and writing processes and development in adolescents using supporting research evidence, including the relationship between culture and the native language of English learners as a support system in their learning to read and write in English.
  • Explain language and reading development during adolescence (e.g., word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections) with supporting evidence from theory and research.
  • Explain the research and theory of learning environments that support individual motivation to read and write. [For example, access to traditional text, digital texts, media collaboration, choice, challenge, and interests.]
1.2: Understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and changes over time in the perceptions of reading and writing development, processes, and components.
  • Identify major milestones in reading scholarship and interpret them in light of the current social context.
1.3: Understand the role of professional judgment and practical knowledge for improving all students' reading development and achievement.
  • Show fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
  • Use multiple sources of information to guide instructional planning to improve reading achievement of all students.

Standard 2: Curriculum and Instruction

Candidates use instructional approaches, materials, and an integrated, comprehensive, balanced curriculum to support student learning in reading and writing.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
2.1: Use foundational knowledge to design or implement an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum.
  • Explain how reading and writing relates to their content area and the local, state, national, and professional standards.
  • Implement the curriculum based on students' prior knowledge, world experiences, and interests.
  • Evaluate the curriculum to ensure that instructional goals and objectives are met.
  • Work with the team or department to help ensure interdisciplinary connections in traditional print, digital, and online contexts.
2.2: Use appropriate and varied instructional approaches, including those that develop word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.
  • Select and implement reading and writing approaches that are evidence based and meet student needs.
  • Differentiate instructional approaches to meet students' reading and writing needs in the content areas. [Literacy development is an ongoing process and requires as much attention for adolescents as for beginning readers. Literacy demands are expanding and include more reading and writing tasks than in the past (see IRA's position statement on adolescent literacy for more information).]
  • Implement and evaluate content area instruction in each of the following elements: vocabulary meaning, comprehension, writing, motivation, and critical thinking. [Vocabulary meaning instruction should include work with multisyllabic words and the use of affixes and Greek and Latin roots.]
  • Incorporate traditional print, digital, and online resources as instructional tools to enhance student learning.
  • As needed, adapt instructional approaches and materials to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners.
2.3: Use a wide range of texts (e.g., narrative, expository, and poetry) from traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Demonstrate knowledge about various materials, including those specifically for adolescent learners, and their uses.
  • Guided by evidence-based rationale, select and use traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Build an accessible, multilevel, and diverse classroom library that contains traditional print, digital, and online resources.

 

Standard 3: Assessment and Evaluation

Candidates use a variety of assessment tools and practices to plan and evaluate effective reading and writing instruction.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
3.1: Understand types of assessments and their purposes, strengths, and limitations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of established purposes for assessing student performance, including tools for screening, diagnosis, progress monitoring, and measuring outcomes.
  • Describe the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment tools and their appropriate uses.
  • Recognize the basic technical adequacy of assessments (e.g., reliability, content, and construct validity).
  • Explain district and state assessment frameworks, proficiency standards, and student benchmarks.
3.2: Select, develop, administer, and interpret assessments, both traditional print and electronic, for specific purposes.
  • Select or develop appropriate assessment tools to monitor student progress and to analyze instructional effectiveness. [These tools may include standardized or more subjective measures, such as rubrics, observations, surveys, and anecdotal records.]
  • Administer classroom and school-based assessments using consistent, fair, and equitable assessment procedures.
  • Recommend and administer assessments for students in need of reading and writing assistance.
  • Interpret and use assessment data to analyze individual, group, and classroom performance and progress within and across content areas and disciplines.
  • Collaborate with content teachers to monitor student progress and to analyze instructional effectiveness.
3.3: Use assessment information to plan and evaluate instruction.
  • Use assessment data to plan instruction systematically and to select appropriate traditional print, digital, and online reading resources.
  • Use assessment data to evaluate students' responses to instruction and to develop relevant next steps for teaching.
  • Identify and interpret patterns in classroom and individual students' data.
  • Collaborate with content area teachers to use assessment data to modify instruction, evaluate the effectiveness of instruction, and plan content literacy initiatives.
3.4: Communicate assessment results and implications to a variety of audiences.
  • Communicate assessment purposes and discuss results with appropriate audiences (i.e., student, parents or guardians, colleagues, and administrators).
  • Use assessment data and student work samples to discuss implications for reading and writing instruction (e.g., highlight differences in student work samples across the content areas).

 

Standard 4: Diversity

Candidates create and engage their students in literacy practices that develop awareness, understanding, respect, and a valuing of differences in our society.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
4.1: Recognize, understand, and value the forms of diversity that exist in society and their importance in learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which diversity can be used to strengthen a literate society, making it more productive, more adaptable to change, and more equitable.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of urban, suburban, and rural environments on local culture, language, and learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which diversity influences adolescent literacy development.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between first- and second-language acquisition and literacy development.
4.2: Use a literacy curriculum and engage in instructional practices that positively impact students' knowledge, beliefs, and engagement with the features of diversity.
  • Assess the various forms of diversity that exist in students as well as in the surrounding community.
  • Provide differentiated instruction and instructional materials, including traditional print, digital, and online resources, that capitalize on diversity.
  • Provide instructional formats that engage students as agents of their own learning.
4.3: Develop and implement strategies to advocate for equity.
  • Provide students with linguistic, academic, and cultural experiences that link their communities with the school.
  • Advocate for change in societal practices and institutional structures that are inherently biased or prejudiced against certain groups.
  • Demonstrate how issues of inequity and opportunities for social justice activism and resiliency can be incorporated into the literacy curriculum.

Standard 5: Literate Environment

Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
5.1: Design the physical environment to optimize students' use of traditional print, digital, and online resources in reading and writing instruction.
  • Arrange their classrooms to provide easy access to books, other instructional materials, and specific areas designed for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students' changing needs.
5.2: Design a social environment that is low risk and includes choice, motivation, and scaffolded support to optimize students' opportunities for learning to read and write.
  • Demonstrate a respectful attitude toward all learners and understand the roles of choice, motivation, and scaffolded support in creating low-risk and positive social environments.
  • Model and teach students routines necessary for establishing and maintaining positive social environments (e.g., appropriate ways to interact with each other and adults).
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and given many opportunities to use English.
5.3: Use routines to support reading and writing instruction (e.g., time allocation, transitions from one activity to another; discussions, and peer feedback).
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for reading and writing instruction using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create and use routines to support instructional and social goals (e.g., regular steps for sharing and responding to materials read, formats for reporting, and efficient transitions among activities, spaces, and online resources).
5.4: Use a variety of classroom configurations (i.e., whole class, small group, and individual) to differentiate instruction.
  • Use evidence-based rationale to make and monitor flexible instructional grouping options for students.
  • Model and scaffold procedures, so students learn to work effectively in a variety of classroom configurations and activities.
  • Use various practices to differentiate instruction (e.g., cooperative learning, literature circles, partner work, and research/investigation groups).

 

Standard 6: Professional Learning and Leadership

Candidates recognize the importance of, demonstrate, and facilitate professional learning and leadership as a career-long effort and responsibility.

Elements Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to
6.1: Demonstrate foundational knowledge of adult learning theories and related research about organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the factors that influence adult learning, organizational change, professional development, and school culture.
6.2: Display positive dispositions related to their own reading and writing and the teaching of reading and writing, and pursue the development of individual professional knowledge and behaviors.
  • Display positive reading and writing behaviors and serve as models for students.
  • Understand the families' and community's roles in helping students apply reading and writing skills to content learning.
  • Work with families, colleagues, and the community to support student learning.
  • Promote student understanding of the value of reading traditional print, digital, and online resources in and out of school.
  • Identify specific questions and goals about the teaching of reading and writing and plan specific strategies for finding answers to those questions.
  • Carry out plans and use results for their own professional growth.
  • Are members of professional organizations related to reading and writing.
  • Demonstrate effective use of technology for improving student learning.
6.3: Participate in, design, facilitate, lead, and evaluate effective and differentiated professional development programs.
  • Recognize the importance of professional development for improving reading and writing in schools.
  • Participate individually and with colleagues in professional development programs at the school and district levels.
  • Apply learning from professional development to instructional practices.
6.4: Understand and influence local, state, or national policy decisions.
  • Are informed about important professional issues.
  • Advocate with various groups (e.g., administrators, school boards, and local, state, and federal policymaking bodies) for needed organizational and instructional changes to promote effective literacy instruction.