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Standards


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Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Standard 2

Curriculum and Instruction

Candidates use instructional approaches, materials, and an integrated, comprehensive, balanced curriculum to support student learning in reading and writing.

The Curriculum and Instruction Standard recognizes the need to prepare educators who have a deep understanding and knowledge of the elements of a balanced, integrated, and comprehensive literacy curriculum and have developed expertise in enacting that curriculum. The elements focus on the use of effective practices in a well-articulated curriculum, using traditional print, digital, and online resources.

The following are the major assumptions of the Standards 2010 Committee for developing this standard and its elements:

  • Foundational knowledge about literacy is essential in establishing a vision, and developing and enacting an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum that is responsive to the needs of diverse learners.
  • A conceptual framework for literacy development should inform teaching practices and selection of materials.
  • Evidence-based instructional strategies and practices should be used in developing and implementing instruction and a balanced and motivating reading and writing program.
  • Comprehensive reading programs provide a wide variety of traditional print, digital, and online resources to meet the needs of diverse students.
  • Traditional print, digital, and online reading and writing experiences that incorporate multiple genres, multiple perspectives, and media and communication technologies are necessary to prepare learners for literacy tasks of the 21st century.

Elements

Element 2.1

Candidates use foundational knowledge to design or implement an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum.

Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to, the following for each professional role.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Implement lessons that are part of the reading and writing curriculum with teacher guidance and supervision.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Explain how the reading and writing curriculum is related to local, state, national and professional standards.
  • Implement the curriculum based on students’ prior knowledge, world experiences, and interests.
  • Evaluate the curriculum to ensure that instructional goals and objectives are met.
  • Plan with other teachers and support personnel in designing, adjusting, and modifying the curriculum to meet students’ needs in traditional print, digital, and online contexts.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Explain how reading and writing relate to their content areas and to local, state, national and professional standards.
  • Implement the curriculum based on students’ prior knowledge, world experiences, and interests.
  • Evaluate the curriculum to ensure that instructional goals and objectives meet the reading and writing demands of the content areas.
  • Work with other teachers and support personnel to design, adjust, and modify the curriculum to meet students’ literacy needs.
  • Support students as agents of their own learning and critical consumers of the discipline.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Explain how reading and writing relates to their content area and the local, state, national, and professional standards.
  • Implement the curriculum based on students’ prior knowledge, world experiences, and interests.
  • Evaluate the curriculum to ensure that instructional goals and objectives are met.
  • Work with the team or department to help ensure interdisciplinary connections in traditional print, digital, and online contexts.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the research and literature that undergirds the reading and writing curriculum and instruction for all pre-K–12 students.
  • Develop and implement the curriculum to meet the specific needs of students who struggle with reading.
  • Support teachers and other personnel in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the reading and writing curriculum for all students.
  • Work with teachers and other personnel in developing a literacy curriculum that has vertical and horizontal alignment across pre-K–12.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Demonstrate knowledge of and evaluate the pre-K–12 reading and writing curriculum.
  • Convey knowledge and understanding of the curriculum to reading professionals.
  • Provide opportunities for reading professionals to develop an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum.
Administrator Candidates
  • Monitor instruction to determine that local, state, and national standards are met.
  • Provide opportunities for review and alignment of the curriculum with local, state, and national standards.

 

Element 2.2

Candidates use appropriate and varied instructional approaches, including those that develop word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading–writing connections.


Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Use a wide range of instructional approaches selected and supervised by the teacher.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Select and implement instructional approaches based on evidence-based rationale, student needs, and purposes for instruction.
  • Differentiate instructional approaches to meet students’ reading and writing needs.
  • Implement and evaluate instruction in each of the following areas: concepts of print, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, critical thinking, motivation, and writing.
  • Incorporate traditional print, digital, and online resources as instructional tools to enhance student learning.
  • As needed, adapt instructional approaches and materials to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Select and implement content area reading and writing instructional approaches based on evidence-based rationale, student needs, and purposes for instruction.
  • Differentiate instructional approaches to meet students’ reading and writing needs in the content areas.
  • Implement and evaluate content area instruction in each of the following areas: vocabulary meaning, comprehension, writing, motivation, and critical thinking.
  • Incorporate traditional print, digital, and online resources as instructional tools to enhance student learning.
  • As needed, adapt instructional approaches and materials to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Select and implement reading and writing approaches that are evidence based and meet student needs.
  • Differentiate instructional approaches to meet students’ reading and writing needs in the content areas.
  • Implement and evaluate content area instruction in each of the following elements: vocabulary meaning, comprehension, writing, motivation, and critical thinking.
  • Incorporate traditional print, digital, and online resources as instructional tools to enhance student learning.
  • As needed, adapt instructional approaches and materials to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Use instructional approaches supported by literature and research for the following areas: concepts of print, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, critical thinking, motivation, and writing.
  • Provide appropriate in-depth instruction for all readers and writers, especially those who struggle with reading and writing.
  • Support classroom teachers and education support personnel to implement instructional approaches for all students.
  • As needed, adapt instructional materials and approaches to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners and students who struggle to learn to read and write.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Provide opportunities for preservice teachers and other reading professionals to understand conceptual underpinnings and evidence-based rationales of instructional approaches.
  • Provide opportunities for preservice teachers and other reading professionals to select, implement, and evaluate instructional approaches based on knowledge of students’ needs and interests, and theory-based knowledge.
Administrator Candidates
  • Provide ongoing, integrated professional development opportunities that allow the demonstration and modeling of evidence-based approaches.
  • Provide opportunities for teachers’ self-reflection and interaction with peers.
  • Provide professional materials and encourage study/discussion groups.

 

Element 2.3

Candidates use a wide range of texts (e.g., narrative, expository, and poetry) from traditional print, digital, and online resources.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • With guidance from teachers, select and use a wide range of materials.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Guided by evidence-based rationale, select and use quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Build an accessible, multilevel, and diverse classroom library that contains traditional print, digital, and online classroom materials.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate knowledge about various materials and their uses.
  • Guided by evidence-based rationale, select and use quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Build an accessible, multilevel, and diverse classroom library for their content areas that contains traditional print, digital, and online resources.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate knowledge about various materials, including those specifically for adolescent learners, and their uses.
  • Guided by evidence-based rationale, select and use traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Build an accessible, multilevel, and diverse classroom library that contains traditional print, digital, and online resources.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Demonstrate knowledge of and a critical stance toward a wide variety of quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Support classroom teachers in building and using a quality, accessible classroom library and materials collection that meets the specific needs and abilities of all learners.
  • Lead collaborative school efforts to evaluate, select, and use a variety of instructional materials to meet the specific needs and abilities of all learners.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Provide opportunities for preservice teachers and other reading professionals to review and critique a wide variety of quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Provide opportunities for preservice teachers and other reading professionals to establish criteria for selecting quality traditional print, digital, and online resources for all students, including English learners.
Administrator Candidates
  • Demonstrate a critical stance toward instructional materials used for reading and writing instruction.
  • Provide opportunities for demonstrations, evaluations, and usage of a wide range of instructional materials that support student learning.

Research and Supporting Literature

The following are representative research and literature consulted by the Standards 2010 Committee in developing this standard:

Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: Changing times, changing literacies. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Au, K.H. (2002). Balanced literacy instruction: Addressing issues of equity. In C.M. Roller (Ed.), Comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels: A collection of papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference (pp. 70–87). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2007). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(4), 506–521. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.74.4.506

Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P.J. (2009). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Blachowicz, C., & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading comprehension: Strategies for independent learners. New York: Guilford.

Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 214–257. doi:10.1598/RRQ.42.2.2

Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., & Leu, D.J. (2008). Handbook of research on new literacies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cowen, J.E. (2003). A balanced approach to beginning reading instruction: A synthesis of six major U.S. research studies. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Dorn, L.J., & Soffos, C. (2005). Teaching for deep comprehension: A reading workshop approach. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School reform and standards-based education: A model for English-language learners. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 195–211. doi:10.3200/JOER.99.4.195-211

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D.J. (2007). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Farstrup, A.E., & Samuels, S.J. (Eds.). (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Farstrup, A.E., & Samuels, S.J. (Eds.). (2008). What research has to say about vocabulary instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Flood, J., & Anders, P.L. (2005). Literacy development of students in urban schools: Research and policy. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Flood, J., Lapp, D., Squire, J.R., & Jensen, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to Intervention: A framework for reading educators. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

George, P.S. (2005). A rationale for differentiating instruction in the regular classroom. Theory Into Practice, 44(3), 185–193. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4403_2

Hobbs, R. (2007). Reading the media: Media literacy in high school English. New York: Teachers College Press.

International Reading Association. (2009). Response to Intervention: Guiding principles for educators from the International Reading Association [Brochure]. Newark, DE: Author.

Jetton, T.L., & Dole, J.A. (Eds.). (2004). Adolescent literacy research and practice. New York: Guilford.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Paris, S.G., & Myers, M., II. (1981). Comprehension monitoring, memory, and study strategies of good and poor readers. Journal of Reading Behavior, 13(1), 5–22.

Strickland, D.S., & Morrow, L.M. (Eds.). (2000). Beginning reading and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association; New York: Teachers College Press.

Tomlinson, C.A., & Strickland, C.A. (2005). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, grades 9–12. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tyner, B., & Green, S.E. (2005). Small-group reading instruction: A differentiated teaching model for intermediate readers, grades 3–8. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.