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Standards


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Standards 2010 has been updated as of Spring 2018. To purchase a copy of Standards 2017, click here. The Standards 2017 FAQ can be found here.


Standards 2010: Standard 5

Literate Environment

Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments.

The Literate Environment Standard focuses on the need for candidates to synthesize their foundational knowledge about content, pedagogy, the effective use of physical space, instructional materials and technology, and the impact of the social environment to create an environment that fosters and supports students’ traditional print, digital, and online reading and writing achievement. This standard recognizes that candidates must create a literate environment that meets the diverse needs of students and facilitates connections across content areas as well as with the world outside the school.

The following are the major assumptions of the Standards 2010 Committee for developing this standard and its elements:

  • An effective literate environment offers both visible and “invisible” support (i.e., psychological, social, emotional) to learners as they expand their literacies.
  • The goal of the literate environment is to create a flexible border between the world outside the classroom and school to the world within (i.e., making the curriculum permeable to the social context). Learning should extend beyond the walls of the educational context to explore the potential for acts of literacy that affect the world outside.
  • Learners require a literate environment that affords them the opportunity to engage in meaningful ways by providing time, accessibility, tools, choice, and support.
  • Student learning is positively impacted by positive teacher dispositions, such as high expectations, a carefully crafted physical environment, and a safe, low-risk social environment.
  • To meet the needs of learners, a coconstructed literate environment must continually change as interests and focal points for learning shift over time.

Elements

Element 5.1

Candidates design the physical environment to optimize students’ use of traditional print, digital, and online resources in reading and writing instruction.

Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to, the following for each professional role.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Assist classroom teachers in developing and maintaining physical arrangements of traditional print, digital, and online resources that facilitate reading and writing instruction.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Arrange their classrooms to provide easy access to books, other instructional materials, and specific areas designed for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students’ changing needs.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Arrange their classrooms to provide easy access to books, other instructional materials, and specific areas designed for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students’ changing needs.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Arrange their classrooms to provide easy access to books, other instructional materials, and specific areas designed for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students’ changing needs.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Arrange instructional areas to provide easy access to books and other instructional materials for a variety of individual, small-group, and whole-class activities and support teachers in doing the same.
  • Modify the arrangements to accommodate students’ changing needs.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Arrange the university classrooms in ways that facilitate understanding the role of the physical environment in reading and writing instruction.
Administrator Candidates
  • Provide resources and encourage flexibility in creating the physical environments.

 

Element 5.2

Candidates design a social environment that is low risk and includes choice, motivation, and scaffolded support to optimize students’ opportunities for learning to read and write.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Assist classroom teachers in creating and maintaining positive social environments.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate a respectful attitude toward all learners and understand the roles of choice, motivation, and scaffolded support in creating low-risk and positive social environments.
  • Model and teach students routines for establishing and maintaining positive social environments (e.g., appropriate ways to interact with each other and adults).
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and given many opportunities to use English.
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate a respectful attitude toward all learners and understand the roles of choice, motivation, and scaffolded support in creating low-risk and positive social environments.
  • Model and teach students appropriate ways to interact with each other and adults.
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and given many opportunities to use English.
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Demonstrate a respectful attitude toward all learners and understand the roles of choice, motivation, and scaffolded support in creating low-risk and positive social environments.
  • Model and teach students routines necessary for establishing and maintaining positive social environments (e.g., appropriate ways to interact with each other and adults).
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and given many opportunities to use English.
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Create supportive social environments for all students, especially those who struggle with reading and writing.
  • Model for and support teachers and other professionals in doing the same for all students.
  • Create supportive environments where English learners are encouraged and provided with many opportunities to use English.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Create positive social environments in the higher education classrooms.
  • Provide opportunities to create positive social environments.
  • Collaborate with candidates, colleagues, teachers, and other professionals to create positive social environments at the university and in schools, including supportive environments where English learners are given many opportunities to use English.
Administrator Candidates
  • Foster school climates that consistently demand positive social interactions between and among adults and students.

 

Element 5.3

Candidates use routines to support reading and writing instruction (e.g., time allocation, transitions from one activity to another, discussions, and peer feedback).

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Understand how and why classroom teachers use specific routines.
  • Assist classroom teachers in creating and maintaining those routines.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for reading and writing instruction using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create and use routines to support instructional and social goals (e.g., regular steps for sharing and responding to stories, formats for reporting, and efficient transitions among activities, spaces, and online resources).
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for content area learning using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create and use routines to support instructional and social goals (e.g., regular steps for sharing and responding to stories, formats for reporting, and efficient transitions among activities, spaces, and online resources).
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for reading and writing instruction using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create and use routines to support instructional and social goals (e.g., regular steps for sharing and responding to materials read, formats for reporting, and efficient transitions among activities, spaces, and online resources).
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Understand the role of routines in creating and maintaining positive learning environments for reading and writing instruction using traditional print, digital, and online resources.
  • Create effective routines for all students, especially those who struggle with reading and writing.
  • Support teachers in doing the same for all readers.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Create effective classroom routines in the higher education classrooms.
  • Provide opportunities for candidates and reading professionals to create and use classroom routines.
  • Collaborate with colleagues, teachers, and other professionals to incorporate the use of technology at the university and in schools.
Administrator Candidates
  • Understand how classroom routines can facilitate reading and writing instruction.
  • Provide school-level infrastructures that support the use of effective classroom routines.

 

Element 5.4

Candidates use a variety of classroom configurations (i.e., whole class, small group, and individual) to differentiate instruction.

Education Support Personnel Candidates
  • Use a variety of instructional grouping options selected by and supervised by the classroom teachers.
  • In consultation with the teachers, adjust instructional groupings to ensure that the diverse needs of learners are being met.
Pre-K and Elementary Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Use evidence-based rationale to make and monitor flexible instructional grouping options for students.
  • Model and scaffold procedures, so students learn to work effectively in a variety of classroom configurations and activities.
  • Use various practices to differentiate instruction (e.g., cooperative learning, literature circles, partner work, and research/investigation groups).
Middle and High School Content Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Use evidence-based rationale to make and monitor flexible instructional grouping options for students.
  • Model and scaffold procedures, so students learn to work effectively in a variety of classroom configurations and activities.
  • Use various practices to differentiate instruction (e.g., cooperative learning, partner work, and research/investigation groups).
Middle and High School Reading Classroom Teacher Candidates
  • Use evidence-based rationale to make and monitor flexible instructional grouping options for students.
  • Model and scaffold procedures, so students learn to work effectively in a variety of classroom configurations and activities.
  • Use various practices to differentiate instruction (e.g., cooperative learning, literature circles, partner work, and research/investigation groups).
Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates
  • Use evidence-based grouping practices to meet the needs of all students, especially those who struggle with reading and writing.
  • Support teachers in doing the same for all students.
Teacher Educator Candidates
  • Prepare reading professionals to use evidence-based instructional grouping options for students.
  • Provide evidence-based information that supports different models of classroom organization and their relative benefits and limitations.
Administrator Candidates
  • Provide resources and encourage flexibility in differentiating instruction.
  • Recruit community members as mentors, tutors, volunteers, and resource providers to support literacy growth at the schools.

Research and Supporting Literature

The following are representative research and literature consulted by the Standards 2010 Committee in developing this standard:

Barr, R., & Dreeben, R. (1991). Grouping students for reading instruction. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 885–910). New York: Longman.

Castle, S., Deniz, C.B., & Tortora, M. (2005). Flexible grouping and student learning in a high-needs school. Education and Urban Society, 37(2), 139–150. doi:10.1177/0013124504270787

Dowhower, S.L., & Beagle, K.G. (1998). The print environment in kindergartens: A study of conventional and holistic teachers and their classrooms in three settings. Reading Research and Instruction, 37(3), 161–190.

Fractor, J.S., Woodruff, M.C., Martinez, M.G., & Teale, W.H. (1993). Let’s not miss opportunities to promote voluntary reading: Classroom libraries in the elementary school. The Reading Teacher, 46(6), 476–484.

Guthrie, J.T., Wigfield, A., Humenick, N.M., Perencevich, K.C., Taboada, A., & Barbosa, P. (2006). Influences of stimulating tasks on reading motivation and comprehension. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 232–246. doi:10.3200/JOER.99.4.232-246

Hadjioannou, X. (2007). Bringing the background to the foreground: What do classroom environments that support authentic discussions look like? American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), 370–399.

Hoffman, J.V., Sailors, M., Duffy, G.R., & Beretvas, S.N. (2004). The effective elementary classroom literacy environment: Examining the validity of the TEX-IN3 observation system. Journal of Literacy Research, 36(3), 303–334.

Loughlin, C.E., & Ivener, B.L. (1987). Literacy behaviors of kindergarten-primary children in high stimulus-level literacy environments. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico and Albuquerque Public Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED354077)

McGill-Franzen, A., Allington, R.L., Yokoi, L., & Brooks, G. (1999). Putting books in the classroom seems necessary but not sufficient. The Journal of Educational Research, 93(2), 67–74. doi:10.1080/00220679909597631

Morrow, L.M. (1991). Relationships among physical designs of play centers, teachers’ emphasis on literacy in play, and children’s literacy behaviors during play. In J. Zutell & S. McCormick (Eds.), Fortieth yearbook of the National Reading Conference: Learner factors/teacher factors: Issues in literacy research and instruction (pp. 127–140). Chicago: National Reading Conference.

Proctor, C.P., Dalton, B., & Grisham, D.L. (2007). Scaffolding English language learners and struggling readers in a universal literacy environment with embedded strategy instruction and vocabulary support. Journal of Literacy Research, 39(1), 71–93.

Schulz, M.M., & Kantor, R. (2005). Understanding the home-school interface in a culturally diverse family. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 10(1), 59–79.

Snyder, I., Angus, L., & Sutherland-Smith, W. (2002). Building equitable literate futures: Home and school computer-mediated literacy practices and disadvantages. Cambridge Journal of Education, 32(3), 367–383. doi:10.1080/0305764022000024212

Taylor, N.E., Blum, I.H., & Logsdon, D.M. (1986). The development of written language awareness: Environmental aspects and program characteristics. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(2), 132–149. doi:10.2307/747841

Wolfersberger, M.E., Reutzel, D.R., Sudweeks, R., & Fawson, P.C. (2004). Developing and validating the classroom literacy environmental profile (CLEP): A tool for examining the “print richness” of early childhood and elementary classrooms. Journal of Literacy Research, 36(2), 211–272.