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    Protecting Reader Privacy in the ELA Classroom

    By Kristin M. Patrick & Tara L. Kingsley
     | Mar 22, 2022
    ProtectingPrivacy_680w

    Nyla, a seventh-grade student, chooses e-books during class to hide from peers her favorite series, The Notebook of Doom, which is well below her current grade level. Lincoln, a high school junior grappling with his sexual identity, bypasses the school library reference desk to search the online catalog for e-books with gay protagonists. Mr. Dicken, a first-year elementary teacher, hesitates when prompted to provide family email addresses to a digital reading platform promising free access to popular picture books.

    Nyla, Lincoln, and Mr. Dicken illustrate that digital materials can provide desired privacy in some scenarios while creating problems in others. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, English language arts (ELA) teachers have increasingly relied on digital materials and online tools to expand student access to books and content, facilitate online collaboration, and deliver learning experiences. Here we provide five recommendations for teachers committed to protecting student and family privacy.

    Honor e-books in addition to print materials

    E-books became a solution for getting books in the hands of readers who faced pandemic restrictions. Scholastic shared in their 2020 Teacher & Principal School Report that the shift to distance and hybrid learning doubled teachers’ desire for e-books from 15% to 31%. E-books, in addition to providing instant access, often have accessibility features that support emerging and striving readers. For example, students can enlarge and mark up text, enable text-to-speech, and modify the display contrast. 

    A frequently overlooked advantage of e-books is that readers can download and enjoy titles without judgment from peers. Consider students like Nyla wanting to conceal their reading level. The placement of reading levels on book spines, a debatable practice, is nonexistent with e-books. The American Association of School Librarians cites the protection of student privacy in their position statement against the labeling of print materials with reading levels. For students like Lincoln, curious about sensitive topics such as gender identity, e-books afford the luxury of reading without peers viewing book covers or making assumptions about the reader. Teaching how to locate and access e-book options can help match students with books that meet their instructional needs and personal interests.

    Avoid providing family email addresses to third-party apps

    ELA teachers in school districts without a managed e-book collection may lean heavily on what are marketed as free digital libraries. Libraries, such as Epic and Vooks, provide free accounts for teachers and student access to popular e-books during school hours; however, the tradeoff is the reliance on paid home subscriptions to sustain their business model. Equity-minded teachers can establish transparency by explaining how these digital platforms operate and assuring families they will not supply home email addresses to third-party apps or services. These companies may advertise to families who then may feel pressure to sign up through email solicitation. While some free digital libraries will remain classroom favorites, we recommend inquiring with your school and public library to seek additional options for digital reading platforms.

    Slow down on the social media celebrations

    Social media can be a powerful vehicle for teachers looking to grow their personal and professional learning networks. Protocols become ambiguous, however, when teachers leverage social media to connect with families and share classroom celebrations. For example, it was common for teachers to enthusiastically post screenshots of virtual meetings throughout the pandemic. These online images often included boxes of student faces labeled with first and last names, a violation of student privacy under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Common Sense Education reminds teachers to be mindful of how social media posts can commercialize a classroom. They explain that while social media can be a great way to offer feedback to developers of educational products, teachers may want to think twice about featuring students in posts that promote specific products or services. We recommend that teachers continue to celebrate learning via social media but pause before posting photos that match student names with faces.

    Teach students healthy online habits

    Students, too, can take steps toward protecting their privacy in the ELA classroom. Teachers may consider modeling for students how to wipe the browser history on a shared device, how to privately search the internet through an incognito window, or how to install browser extensions that block online activity trackers. These small habits don’t take long to demonstrate and have the potential to stick with learners long after they leave the classroom. Teachers looking for expanded lesson plans on maintaining privacy online can search Common Sense Education, Learning for Justice, and code.org.

    Consult district curriculum leaders when trying new tools

    Edtech industry efforts to provide free trials of digital tools throughout the pandemic have left many wondering what schools, teachers, and families gave in exchange. The answer may be data. Free digital libraries mentioned above should not be singled out for their targeted marketing. Common Sense Education found inconsistent privacy practices across the industry as part of their 2019 State of Edtech Privacy Report. Some district curriculum leaders are now examining privacy policies when evaluating whether educational apps and resources are useful for meeting instructional goals. Checking for certifications such as the Student Privacy Pledge and iKeepSafe can be one strategy for verifying a company’s commitment to protecting student privacy.

    As pandemic restrictions ease in the classroom, we hope teachers will continue to incorporate their favorite digital tools for collaboration and instruction. Teachers and librarians shouldn’t abandon technology to avoid student privacy issues. Future-focused ELA teachers will recognize there are two sides to the privacy coin. Some of these tools will provide new opportunities for protecting student privacy while others will create new vulnerabilities. It is a shared responsibility to implement safeguards to keep student data private.

     

    Kristin M. Patrick is a past president of the Indiana State Literacy Association and a technology integration coach with Noblesville Schools.

    Tara L. Kingsley is an associate professor of education at Indiana University Kokomo.

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    Creating Room for Humor in Critical Media Literacy

    By Addie Shrodes
     | Feb 05, 2021
    CreatingRoomforHumor_680w

    Digital media is an important tool for broadening access to knowledge and skills. Yet digital content and platforms can also reproduce structures of power. From white supremacist Tweets to ableist TikTok algorithms, oppressive ideologies show up everywhere online. Young people need critical media literacy practices to learn to identify and challenge the oppressive ideologies that undergird digital media and technologies.

    That said, young people already use digital media to organize for justice and speak back to power. How can educators build on what students learn on social media to support and sharpen critical media literacies? To answer this question, we first need to know more about how students use digital media toward justice-oriented ends. I turned to LGBTQ+ YouTube to examine how young people resist intersecting oppressions of race, gender, and sexuality.

    Critical media literacy on social media is serious work, but it can also be funny. Humor is nearly ubiquitous on LGBTQ+ YouTube, with reaction videos modeling a common form of critical humor. LGBTQ+ reaction videos respond, often comedically, to discriminatory media like right-wing political advertisements. I began to wonder: How do YouTubers who watch and comedically react to anti-LGBTQ+ and anti-Black media perform critical media literacies? And how is humor functioning in reaction videos?

    Humor as political possibility in digital culture

    Through a multimodal analysis, I found that humor nurtures political possibility and supports critical media literacies. I approach political possibility as the sense that social change toward a more just world is possible. This possibility of transformation is vital for marginalized young people who may encounter injustice every day.

    Humor also plays a central role in the YouTubers’ critical media literacy practices. Moments of humor defuse hatred and amplify agency to resist social injustice. Satire and parody in these videos challenge ideologies that undergird oppressive digital media, accomplishing important intellectual and political work. Viewers may learn moves for anti-racist, anti-homophobic, and anti-transphobic action. Humor as a performance of joy, exuberance, and care also lays the foundation for a better world.

    Although humor may saturate new media, the use of humor to respond to injustice is not new. Queer and queer of color activists and artists have long used humor to disrupt hate and create community. As scholar Danielle Fuentes Morgan has argued, satire in Black communities subversively unmasks the unethical violence of white supremacy and anti-Blackness. Reaction videos expand these practices of satire and parody to subvert phobic ideologies, build power, and cultivate joy.

    Using humor in justice-oriented teaching

    From YouTube to the classroom, humor has a place in social justice learning. Here are some ways educators can nurture humor as political possibility:

    Develop a vision to value humor. Develop an expansive vision for how you can value practices of humor as political possibility. Build on the experiences, identities, and knowledge of your students and consider the sociopolitical context of learning. Consider making a point to better understand how funny digital media such as TikTok videos are meaningful to students as sites of learning.

    See and support student digital activism. Marginalized students are using social media to get involved in social justice activism in their communities and online. Take notice of and find ways to support the everyday work students take up to resist and transform oppressive ideologies toward more just futures. For one, consider what knowledge students hold about social injustice and what desires they share for a better world.

    Critically analyze everyday digital texts. To teach critical media literacies, bring in the digital media texts that students encounter on social media. Incorporate analysis of comedic multimedia texts such as reaction videos, memes, multimedia collage, or other forms of anti-oppressive remix. You might ask students to submit digital texts (videos, memes, images, etc.) from their everyday activities on social media.

    Incorporate satire and parody in critical pedagogy. Educators engaged in critical pedagogy might incorporate parody and satire as forms of critical resistance in the pursuit of educational freedom. Through this approach, you can better understand the role of humor in critical literacies young people learn online and compassionately sharpen these practices with pedagogical assistance.

    Design media production with digital mentor texts. Involve students in digital media production that engages the media they may encounter online, such as reaction videos. I tend to approach media production as an iterative cycle to engage ➝ explore ➝ reflect ➝ make. Engage with a mentor text, in this case a reaction video like that from YouTuber Mac Kahey, aka MacDoesIt. Explore other videos or posts of its kind on social media. Reflect together on what students noticed, thought, felt, liked, and would have done differently. Try it out by making a video that takes up and transforms the practices they saw.

     

    Every educator needs to incorporate the important practices of social justice work and critical media literacy into their instruction. By examining these principles through the lens of humor, students connect with valuable lessons in how they can counter hate, create community, and speak out against potentially heavy topics in a way that keeps spirits high.

     

    Addie Shrodes is a doctoral candidate in the School of Education and Social Policy at Northwestern University in Evanston, IL. Her dissertation work examines the roles of humor, play, and protest in the critical digital literacies of trans and queer teens. You can follow her on Twitter @AddieShrodes.

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    Together Apart: Fostering Collaboration in a Remote Learning Environment

    By Katy Tarasi
     | Aug 25, 2020

    Student at computerAs a literacy coach for grades K–6, there is nothing I love more than seeing students deeply engaged in collaboration. From the excitement on the faces of kindergartners as they turn and whisper their thoughts in a think-pair-share to the quick-paced discussion of sixth graders determining where to place vocabulary words according to their shades of meaning, the classrooms in my school are typically full of authentic and lively student interactions.

    Student collaboration is critical. Partner reading builds fluency. Sharing manipulatives to retell a story strengthens language development and reading comprehension. The ability to share the pen with another, communicate clearly, and problem solve in teams has so many benefits.

    Students need collaborative work now more than ever. Social distancing is taking its toll on student learning, particularly the kind that comes when students work in groups. But how do we bring collaborative learning into a virtual setting this year?

    I’ve been meeting with teachers around the United States virtually this summer to support them with the implementation of a literacy curriculum that we use at my school, which calls for authentic collaborative work and rich student discourse. In the course of these meetings, I’ve come up with a few ideas for bringing collaboration into a virtual space.

    Set up routines

    Just like at the start of any school year, set up class routines for collaborative work during remote learning. Explicitly state expectations, routines, and procedures. Talk about digital norms and practices, such as how to raise a hand or get attention during an online class and how to appropriately use the chat function of a digital platform.

    Just as you’d have a checklist of expectations taped to the wall of your classroom, post your expectations on a shared site within the digital platform. Give consistent praise as students are learning the routines and redirect as needed. Allow time for student reflection on routines because learning how to participate and collaborate is just as important as learning the content.

    Make the learning purposeful

    Collaborative learning should be purposeful. Just like in the traditional classroom, teachers should establish why they’re using a particular group-based or partner approach during instructional time. This will focus the activity and give teachers a lens for choosing a collaborative strategy.

    When students can’t be together in person, have them record video conversations on tools like Flipgrid or Padlet. Require students to watch and respond to classmates by posting their own short video or writing a response to create a chain of linking comments. Don’t shy away from giving students—especially younger students—prompts or sentence starters to help them build rich and meaningful conversations, at least initially.

    Make the learning authentic

    As adults, we work together to achieve a goal or converse to learn about one another, and we want to provide this same experience for our students.

    This can mean taking collaboration out of the virtual classroom space and engaging in collaborative experiences with family, friends, or community members. Consider this question we ask kindergartners: “How has life in America changed over time?” They can reach out to caregivers or family members and ask them questions about their experiences in school and at home. If a student doesn’t have anyone available to talk to, the teacher can share experiences through recorded clips or a Zoom call. Stakeholders such as administrators or PTA members can share experiences, too.

    Provide fundamental feedback

    Keep an eye on how collaborative work is going and give students guidance to steer it in the right direction. That tends to happen naturally in a classroom environment but will take extra work virtually. Provide praise and corrective feedback regularly on both procedures and collaboration. Use class time to reflect on the process of virtual learning, noting what students like and dislike.

    If students are engaging in peer editing using a shared online platform, teacher feedback is necessary for it to be purposeful. If student feedback isn’t particularly robust, use this as a formative assessment. Use your next class session to model an appropriate response and introduce a rubric or sentence starters.

    Modify activities for virtual learning

    Many in-person activities that educators already use in their classroom have the potential to be moved into a remote environment with a bit of creativity. An example of an activity I’ve been thinking about converting to a virtual experience involves Chalk Talks.

    As an in-person activity, students meet in groups and answer questions about a book that is posted in the classroom. With my fourth graders, I have used Love That Dog by Sharon Creech. Students responded collectively to questions around topics such as how the main character changed over time and the difference between literal versus figurative text. In addition to responding to teacher questions, students have to weigh in on other groups’ comments.

    Virtually, a teacher could place the students in several configurations. First, each student would work independently to answer a question. Next, students would meet in small groups in online breakout rooms and agree on one answer. Then, students would all come together in a whole group, giving “expert” groups a chance to share out. Finally, students would go back to breakout rooms and reflect on the different answers.

    Younger students can also collaborate virtually. During an in-person kindergarten lesson, students might have worked together to identify the genre of a set of books. Then the students would have justified their choice by placing it on a graphic organizer.

    To do this activity virtually, the teacher could record and share a video about the traits of different genres, and then students could come together in small groups in online breakout rooms to discuss their thoughts. Finally, students could drag-and-drop the titles in categories on Seesaw. Remember that younger students need to practice routines like speaking one at a time and using sentence frames such as “I agree with Katy because….”

    I know educators are feeling nervous about the days and weeks ahead, but I also know they are putting a lot of thought into how to teach effectively and creatively in an online environment. By focusing on students’ needs, including the need to work collaboratively, I’m confident we can deliver great instruction.

    Katy Tarasi is an elementary literacy coach in the Avonworth School District near Pittsburgh, PA, and a fellow with the Great Minds’ Wit & Wisdom English Language Arts team. In that capacity, Katy delivers professional development and coaching to educators around the United States. She can be reached via email.
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    Reading Rescue: Preventing the COVID-19 Slide With Lessons for Comprehension and Fluency at Home

    By Lori Oczkus
     | Apr 16, 2020

    Lori Oczkus teaching
    As we adjust to life in the world of remote learning, families and educators are continuing to refine at-home instructional reading routines—especially for students who experience difficulties with reading comprehension. Whether students read fluently or haltingly, they may find it challenging to summarize, answer questions, figure out unknown vocabulary, and unlock deeper meaning.

    How can we ensure that our students progress in their reading achievement instead of falling behind during the COVID-19 pandemic? What strategies can we incorporate into distance learning and at home to accelerate student literacy? Here I suggest new, engaging, and practical ways to use reciprocal teaching, or what I call the Fab Four, to improve literacy achievement.

    Reading rescue: The Fab Four for success

    The Fab Four are proven comprehension strategies that are easily adapted to home and distance learning for quick results. When researcher John Hattie ranked 138 teaching strategies according to their impact, reciprocal teaching landed at number nine, roughly yielding two years’ growth in one year.

    The Fab Four are essential strategies good readers employ to understand texts: predict, question, clarify, and summarize. These strategies work with any text at any grade level to boost comprehension. Students exhibit confidence and engagement after just a few lessons.

    When reciprocal teaching is used two to three times per week to discuss texts, some students improve six months to a year in a few months. In the classroom, the teacher guides students in discussions using the four strategies. Students may discuss in teams and eventually take on roles for each of these strategies: predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer.

    Close reading with the Fab Four at home

    Good readers often reread challenging texts to gain better understanding. This “close reading” calls for students to reread for different purposes. The Fab Four strategies provide an ideal framework for rereading texts to develop better comprehension and fluency.

    In the links at the end of this post, you will find lesson plans developed for parents and caregivers to use as they read and discuss informational texts and poetry at home with their children. Parents and caregivers should take turns with their child and be sure to make these experiences enjoyable rather than turn the Fab Four into a test. The result is an engaging exchange that promotes both improved comprehension and fluency. The poetry lesson includes suggestions for rereading for enjoyment and a performance for family members and friends.

    Sample Fab Four Lesson

    Predict

    Discuss the title, author, visuals, and headings. Skim the text. Take turns.

    “My prediction is that I think we will learn ________because_____.”


    Read Together

    Choose for the child or let the child choose how to read: silently, echo read, read-aloud, or in unison.


    Reread to Clarify

    Take turns finding words to clarify.

     “A tricky or interesting word or phrase to clarify is_____ . We can figure it out by _______.”

    Answers might include sounding it out, finding smaller parts, reading on, rereading, or thinking about a synonym.


    Reread to Question

    Take turns asking questions.

     “My question is _____.” “I wonder______________.”


    Reread to Summarize

    Take turns summarizing.

    “This was about__________.” “I learned__________________.” “My favorite part was__________.”

     

    Adapting The Fab Four for families/distance learning

    As part of your class reading instruction, try Fab Four lessons twice a week during Zoom, See-Saw, or another online meeting platform. Have students respond to reading using the Fab Four strategies as a discussion guide. Rather than calling on individual students, encourage a group discussion where multiple students give input to one another. Encourage sharing with a partner or team before the entire class discusses the text. Students may also mark texts with sticky notes or colored pencils. This practice through these remote learning platforms will allow students to benefit from sessions with peers as well as their families. You can model turn-taking with families and caregivers by having them participating in a digital meeting as well.

    Teacher Created Materials

    Here are a couple seven-minute Fab Four lessons available for free on the Teacher Created Materials YouTube channel.

    We’ve also created a letter that educators can share with families and caregivers. This provides a quick FAQ about the Fab Four strategies and a pair of bookmarks you can use to practice these strategies with the provided text.

    Lori Oczkus is a literacy coach, author, and popular speaker across the United States. She has extensive experience as a bilingual elementary teacher, intervention specialist working with struggling readers, staff developer, and literacy coach. Lori is the author of the book Reciprocal Teaching at Work 3rd ed. (ASCD/ILA, 2018; foreword by John Hattie, Ph.D.).

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    ILA Edcamp Online: Join the Conversation

    By ILA Staff
     | Apr 01, 2020

    Man listening to computer The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has made it necessary to close schools across the globe. It’s also led to widespread cancellation of professional learning events that had been slated for spring, leaving teachers with even fewer outlets to connect and collaborate.

    To help educators build community through conversation, the International Literacy Association (ILA) has created ILA Edcamp Online—a virtual adaptation of the popular unconference—scheduled for Tuesday, April 7, 5:00 p.m.–7:00 p.m. ET.

    The goal: to create a space where educators can connect in real time, on a level deeper than even Twitter chats or Facebook Live broadcasts can provide.

    “Many teachers tend to be social creatures who find comfort and growth through their network of colleagues,” says Becky Fetterolf, director of program content and engagement at ILA. “The necessary distancing guidelines have limited activities substantially, so we wanted to create something that could meet those unfulfilled needs.”

    For those unfamiliar with the Edcamp experience, here's how it works: Attendees drive the agenda, participants facilitate on-the-fly sessions, and interactivity is key. The resulting collaboration leads to professional topics that feel far more personal than a traditional “stand and deliver” session.  

    ILA Edcamp Online will leverage Zoom, the video communications platform that’s been exploding as a result of shelter-in-place orders. but make no mistake: This won’t be a static webinar. Edcamps are characterized as “unconferences” founded on the idea that participants learn from one another.

    “We’re making every effort to preserve the Edcamp format as we adapt the event from in person to online,” Fetterolf says. This includes sourcing discussion topics directly from educators. An informal survey distributed through email and social media yielded three topics:  

    • Alternative Access: Connecting When Your Students Don’t Have Connectivity (session full)
    • Continuous K–5 Learning During School Closures: Techniques, Tips, and Tools (session full)
    • Supporting Struggling Learners: Instruction and Intervention in a Virtual Environment (session full)

    “There were clear front-runners,” Fetterolf says. “It made it easy for us to build the ‘rooms.’”

    Some Edcamp features won’t translate to the Zoom platform, however. One principle Edcamps employ is the “rule of two feet,” which encourages attendees who aren’t getting enough out of one discussion to move freely to another one. ILA Edcamp Online registrants can participate only in the session for which they register. However, notes from each discussion will be made public after the event for anyone to read.

    Facilitators will leverage Zoom features such as polling, virtual hand raising, and group/private chat functionality to encourage the dynamic conversation that drives in-person Edcamps.

    For this inaugural ILA Edcamp Online, space is limited. Fetterolf stresses the importance that educators who register commit to actively participate.

    “When you register, you’re holding a seat for yourself,” she says. “But that also means another educator can’t fill that seat. So, we’re really hoping that everyone who registers and attends is prepared to engage.”  

    ILA Edcamp Online isn’t the only new digital offering from ILA; for the month of April, educators can register for the ILA 2019 Replay, which delivers free access to six recorded sessions from last year’s conference in New Orleans, LA. Presenters include Pedro Noguera, Renée Watson, Donalyn Miller, David Kirkland, Tricia Ebarvia, and Dave Stuart Jr.

    Also included in the ILA 2019 Replay: “What Research Really Says About Teaching Reading—and Why That Still Matters,” the wildly popular panel discussion led by P. David Pearson, Nell K. Duke, Sonia Cabell, and Gwendolyn McMillon that managed to fill a large session room and attract more than 150 livestream viewers at 7:00 a.m. on a Saturday—an audience that continued to grow when the archive was shared.

    Within days of registration for the ILA 2019 Replay opening, more than 2,000 educators signed up.

    Those numbers, Fetterolf says, underscore the current need for quality digital programming. “So many educators tell us that ILA conferences are where they go to recharge and reconnect. To be able to bring some of that PD magic into their homes is our privilege.”

    As for ILA Edcamp Online, if early social media buzz is any indication, registration is likely to max out quickly. (Edit: Sessions reached capacity in a matter of hours.)

    “If this event is as successful as we’re anticipating, you can expect to see more of them from ILA in the future,” promises Fetterolf.

    Links to register for both ILA Edcamp Online and the ILA 2019 Replay are available on the ILA Digital Events page.

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