Literacy Now

Teaching Tips
ILA Membership
ILA Next
ILA Journals
ILA Membership
ILA Next
ILA Journals
    • Teaching Tips
    • ~8 years old (Grade 3)
    • ~7 years old (Grade 2)
    • ~9 years old (Grade 4)
    • ~6 years old (Grade 1)
    • Special Education Teacher
    • Librarian
    • Reading Specialist
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Literacy Coach
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Job Functions
    • Blog Posts
    • Content Types
    • Teacher Empowerment
    • Curriculum Development
    • Classroom Instruction
    • Professional Development
    • Topics
    • ~18 years old (Grade 12)
    • ~17 years old (Grade 12)
    • ~16 years old (Grade 11)
    • ~15 years old (Grade 10)
    • ~14 years old (Grade 9)
    • ~13 years old (Grade 8)
    • ~12 years old (Grade 7)
    • ~11 years old (Grade 6)
    • ~10 years old (Grade 5)
    • The Engaging Classroom

    ​ Identifying Your Students' Strengths and Needs

    By Towanda Harris
     | Apr 28, 2021

    Walking into a classroom for the first time can cause a whirlwind of thoughts to whip around in your mind. There are so many factors to consider about the success of your students in that school year. Outside of academics, you have to consider parental involvement, student behaviors, administrative support and, of course, resources.

    You would love to share stories of how your summer preparation is the same year to year. You would love to say that your reading corner is organized the same each year. You would love to say that classroom arrangements stay the same throughout the year. In this fantasy land, we could just unpack our labeled containers and unroll our anchor charts and quickly begin teaching, day one.

    Reality is very different. Changes occur midyear because students are not thriving. We all know this feeling. Just as businesses consider their customers when creating new products, we consider our students when developing our plans of action each year.

     

    In every classroom, you’ll find a range of students, from those who are working several grade levels below to those who are working above level. The only way we can equip our students for success is to meet them where they are, and the only way to do that is to get to know their needs and strengths.

    Knowing our students helps us to choose the most useful resources for them and to make every moment of our precious instructional time count.

    You can continue your professional learning with Towanda Harris by watching this free ILA Webinar, “Journey to a Student-Centered Classroom: Equitable Practices That Make a Difference,” and by downloading a free sample chapter of her book, The Right Tools, from Heinemann.

    From the classroom to the district, Dr. Towanda Harris has trained teachers throughout the state of Georgia. She brings almost 20 years of professional experience to each of her sessions. Her workshops are engaging and provide teachers with useful tools that allow them to reflect on their current practice. Originally an elementary school teacher, she has served as a literacy coach, adjunct professor, K–12 staff developer, and curriculum writer.

    Read More
    • Content Areas
    • English Language Arts
    • Children's Literature
    • Topics
    • Librarian
    • Reading Specialist
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Literacy Coach
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Job Functions
    • Blog Posts
    • Content Types
    • Critical Literacy
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • Student Level
    • The Engaging Classroom
    • Teaching Tips
    • ~8 years old (Grade 3)
    • ~7 years old (Grade 2)
    • ~6 years old (Grade 1)
    • ~5 years old (Grade K)
    • ~4 years old (Grade Pre-K)

    The Screen Time Dilemma: Picture Books as Tools to Guide Reflection on Social Habits and Cultural Practices

    By Kathleen A. Paciga and Melanie D. Koss
     | Apr 13, 2021
    Girl on mobile phone

    Children’s books are commonly used in home, school, and community contexts to promote awareness of complex social issues at the earliest stages of development. Children and their caregivers encounter cultural models for, and may appropriate sociocultural values and norms about, the screen time dilemma through their experiences with texts that contain narratives about screens. The dilemma centers on the question of how much screen time—oftentimes measured in the number of minutes—is too much? Also considered is the types of interactions children have with devices.

    More and more frequently, picture books contain representations of screens, media, and technologies. How might these texts be leveraged to help children understand their relationships with screens in a more nuanced way?

    Lots of talk about screen time

    Headlines in major news media outlets have long put forward claims about the dangers of increases in screen time for children who are spending more minutes looking at screen media than ever before. This has intensified since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although some of the science has suggested corollary damages to eyes and increased weight in children with excessive and sedentary use of screens, there are several additional factors associated with screen time, some more positive, that tend to be overlooked in the discussion.

    Moving past the number of minutes a child spends with a screen as the criteria for evaluating the worth of a child’s experience with screens is critical. A consideration of the “3 Cs”—the Child, the Context, and the Content—provides a more balanced lens for evaluation. Consider the whole child—their cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development—and their needs as related to the current context in which screens are used. Also consider the quality of the content and whether it is used for entertainment, creativity, or social interaction, or to help the child learn about a topic that is of interest to them.

    Media mentorship

    Shortly after mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets came to market, librarians and education researchers started suggesting that caregivers and children need media mentors. Media mentors help families make wise technology choices for and with their children, and they help families use new cultural tools.

    Teachers can step into this role by leveraging read-alouds to launch discussions around how students and caregivers embrace, restrict, or balance the screens, digital media, and technologies in their lives.

    Titles and talking points

    The stories that follow offer abundant opportunity to explore these issues with pre-K–3 children and their families. Across all titles, teachers have opportunities to talk about what is added to and omitted from the child’s life while screens are turned on, turned off, or put to the side.

    The Breaking News (Sarah Lynne Ruel, Roaring Brook)

    Presenting a view of parents tracking a significant news event on the television and their phones, a little girl is confused and overwhelmed. She tries to find a way to make a difference in cheering up her family and community. This story opens the door for conversations about current events and the role of screens in presenting the news. Kids can advocate in their homes for adults to “turn it off,” and adults can help explain the importance of news in everyday life, exploring the emotions that a breaking news story might present.

    Our Great Big Backyard (Laura Bush & Jenna Bush Hager, HarperCollins)

    Jane’s parents are making her go on a family cross-country road trip, but Jane really wants to stay home with her friends. She spends her time texting her friends or watching videos on a device, ignoring her parents’ encouragement to enjoy the great outdoors. Jane eventually arrives at the conclusion that what is going on around her in reality is worth attending to. This story allows for conversation about children’s desire to connect with peers, the role of media in a child’s life, and the ways caregivers might find balance between experiences indoors and outdoors, with screens and without screens, as well as between peers and family.

    Hair Love (Matthew A. Cherry, Kokila)

    It’s a special day, and Zuri needs to create the perfect hairstyle, but her dad is sleeping. While researching possibilities, her tablet falls, waking her dad. He attempts several styles, but none are quite right. Zuri encourages him to watch a video tutorial to learn how it’s done. This book beautifully celebrates the positives and potentials of screens as a tool for learning and inquiry. It provides opportunities to discuss a child’s goals for using a screen and fosters understandings of how screens can be used alone or in conjunction with others—as is captured in the joint use between Zuri and her father as well as in the celebratory selfie Zuri snaps at the end of the story.

    When Grandma Gives You a Lemon Tree (Jamie L.B. Deenihan, Sterling)

    What do you do when you really want a technological toy for your birthday but instead you get a lemon tree? The main character had to learn to make the best of it, ultimately growing to appreciate the joy that taking care of something can bring. Sharing the tree and lemons with her family and neighborhood inspired the main character to explore gardening and her friends to put down their technology and explore nature. A house portrayed without any technology and feeling like the only one without allows for discussion on consumerism and wanting, yet not always receiving, what peers have, as well as ways to interact with others around items without screens.

    For more on where ILA stands on using technology as a tool to teach children, read our position statement and literacy leadership brief Digital Resources in Early Childhood Literacy Development.

     

    ILA member Katie A. Paciga is an associate professor at Columbia College, Chicago in Illinois.

    ILA member Melanie D. Koss is an associate professor at Northern Illinois University.

    Read More
    • The Engaging Classroom
    • Teaching Tips
    • Student Level
    • ~5 years old (Grade K)
    • ~6 years old (Grade 1)
    • ~7 years old (Grade 2)
    • ~8 years old (Grade 3)
    • ~9 years old (Grade 4)
    • ~10 years old (Grade 5)
    • ~11 years old (Grade 6)
    • ~12 years old (Grade 7)
    • ~13 years old (Grade 8)
    • ~14 years old (Grade 9)
    • ~15 years old (Grade 10)
    • ~16 years old (Grade 11)
    • ~17 years old (Grade 12)
    • Content Types
    • Blog Posts
    • Job Functions
    • Administrator
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Literacy Coach
    • Reading Specialist
    • Librarian

    Five Steps to Address Anti-Blackness: Black Immigrant Literacies

    By Patriann Smith
     | Mar 17, 2021
    FiveStepsToAddressAntiBlackness_680

    I recently wrote the piece "Beyond Anti-Blackness in Bilingual Education" for the American Educational Research Association's Bilingual Education Research Special Interest Group. In this piece, I invited everyone to think about how anti-Blackness has inadvertently persisted in bilingual education throughout the United States via the lens of Black immigrant literacies. In this blog post, I want to continue that conversation and present five steps educators can take to address anti-Blackness.

    We know Blackness has been excluded from bilingual programs and that limited emphasis is placed on the bilingualism of Black “English learners” at large. We know also that Black students who use multiple Englishes and speak other “dialects” in the U.S. have not been a major part of bilingual programming because of how we continue to define bilingualism. Black immigrants, who are a part of the Black student population and who use their own languages and dialects, further complicate this situation because they tend to be viewed as a model minority, creating an invisible and lingering disconnect between Black American and Black immigrant youth. In turn, many teachers and educators often find themselves struggling to address anti-Blackness in language for all Black students. But things do not have to be this way.

    Consider that in 2019, for the first time, the U.S. reflected a majority non-White population under 16. Note also, that by 2030, the U.S. will face a demographic turning point:

    • Racial and ethnic groups will continue to function as the primary drivers of overall growth because of the unanticipated decline in the country’s White population.
    • Immigration will continue to overtake natural births as the main source of population growth for the country.

    By 2060, the nation’s foreign-born population is projected to rise from 44 million people in 2016 to 69 million. Amid these projections, Black residents in the U.S.—both native and foreign born—are expected to continue to function as one of the major non-White groups accounting for the growth of the nation.

    A perpetuating cycle

    The past five years with increasingly anti-Black languaging geared toward Black residents in the U.S. were a powerful reminder that history repeats itself. Last year, particularly with the death of George Floyd, illustrated what can happen when racial dissent festers, erupts, and destroys—again, because of anti-Black languaging.

    And in January 2021, we saw how the pervasive subtlety of linguistic destruction that has, for decades, wrecked invisible havoc on the hearts and minds of Black youth, came to a climax as anti-Black language and anti-Black literacies functioned as fuel, fanning the flames of violence against Black residents in the U.S.

    If we do not take urgent steps to address anti-Blackness in the languages and literacies of Black students to bridge gaps and build solidarity among Black youth, invisible divisions within the Black population are likely to be further exacerbated by the anti-Black discourses that have managed to create them in the first place. Failing to leverage language and literacy to address anti-Blackness can threaten Black humanity for generations and places everyone at risk.

    I envision, through Black immigrant literacies, a United States where bilingual education is reenvisioned to center the languages, including dialects, of Black children (i.e., African American Vernacular English, Jamaican Creole English, West African Pidgin English). How can we do this together? The Black immigrant literacies framework suggests multiple ways. I present the first in this multipart blog series.

    Through Black immigrant literacies, teachers can create opportunities for youth who identify as Black American and Black immigrant to share what I call “local–global” connections.

    Five steps for creating local–global connections

    Step 1: Have Black immigrant youth share their experiences with language as well as being Black in their home countries and the U.S. through their written and verbal Englishes as well as multimodal literacies. In these creations, encourage youth to reflect on the variations and how they and others perceive their ethnic, racial, and linguistic backgrounds.

    Step 2: Now have Black U.S.-born youth share their experiences with language and being Black in the United States through their written and verbal Englishes as well as multimodal literacies. In these creations, encourage youth to reflect on the variations and how they and others perceive their ethnic, racial, and linguistic backgrounds.

    Step 3: Use these literate creations as a basis for individual reflection about Blackness on the part of each student by having Black American youth exchange their created products with Black immigrant youth and vice versa. What similarities and differences do they see between their creation and that of their peers? What elements do they not understand? Allow all students to write these down.

    Step 4: Engage Black immigrant and Black American youth in discussions about their reflections. How did Blackness seem present or absent in creations when the peers were born in the U.S.? How did Blackness seem present or absent in creations when U.S.-born peers had immigrant parents or when they were foreign born? What new insights can Black immigrant peers learn about Black American students’ experiences and how to respond to negative responses about their languages and literacies?

    Step 5: Have youth revise their creations to reflect insights from their Black immigrant or U.S.-born peers. Have all students share the creations with other Black peers in their classrooms, schools, and via social media as well as with their parents, friends, families, and caregivers. Create opportunities across classrooms and schools for broad discussion about these insights, inviting non-Black peers to be part of the learning and conversation.

    Learn more about how to address anti-Blackness through literacy

    Already there are numerous Black scholars spearheading efforts to address anti-Blackness in language and literacy across organizations such as the International Literacy Association, Literacy Research Association, National Council of Teachers of English, TESOL, and American Association for Applied Linguistics. These scholars invite us to use new tools, theories, and pedagogies to center Blackness in the language and literacy practices that we use as teachers and educators in schools.

    You, too, can address anti-Blackness in language and literacy with and for Black children and youth. Start now by attending my upcoming presentations, "Challenging Anti-Blackness in Language Education" on March 25, 2021, at TESOL 2021 and "A (Trans)Raciolinguistic Approach for Literacy Classrooms" on March 26, 2021, at the Shifting Linguistic Landscapes conference.

    Dr. Patriann Smith is an assistant professor of literacy at the University of South Florida. Her research focuses on cross-cultural and cross-linguistic considerations for Black immigrant literacy and language instruction and assessment. She has proposed a transraciolinguistic approach for clarifying Black immigrant literacies and Englishes. Her research has appeared in journals such as the American Educational Research Journal, ILA’s Reading Research Quarterly, and Teachers College Record. Her current book project is Black Immigrant Literacies: Translanguaging for Success (forthcoming 2022 from Cambridge University Press).

    Read More
    • The Engaging Classroom
    • Student Level
    • ~5 years old (Grade K)
    • Teaching Tips
    • ~7 years old (Grade 2)
    • Blog Posts
    • Content Types
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • Writing
    • Vocabulary
    • Reading
    • Foundational Skills
    • Topics
    • ~13 years old (Grade 8)
    • ~12 years old (Grade 7)
    • ~11 years old (Grade 6)
    • ~10 years old (Grade 5)
    • ~9 years old (Grade 4)
    • ~8 years old (Grade 3)
    • ~6 years old (Grade 1)

    Four Tips for Teaching Early Readers Remotely

    By Katy Tarasi
     | Jan 22, 2021
    Student on Zoom

    As a first-grade teacher for nearly a decade, I enjoyed nothing more than teaching early readers to unlock the code and discover the joy of books. Three years ago, I was hired as the literacy coach for my district. In this role, I led professional development sessions on teaching reading in the primary grades, training teachers and support staff on explicit, systematic instruction, and managed committees on English language arts curriculum.

    Then in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, our district moved to remote learning. Everything I had been teaching other educators involved in-person, hands-on instruction. I was dismayed. How could we ever reproduce literacy instruction in a distance learning format?

    But no matter the venue, whether on-site, remote, or a hybrid format, teachers can continue delivering high-quality literacy instruction. The following tips have helped me, and I hope will do the same for others tasked with teaching reading and writing virtually.

    1. Remember your classroom must-dos.

    When teaching reading, replicate good practices virtually. As you would with a traditional lesson plan, begin with your goal in mind and then consider how it can be achieved through the screen. What do you want the students to learn? How can you get them there? Then consider your learning plan, materials, and opportunities for practice and frequent feedback.

    For example, our primary-grade teachers deliver daily phonics lessons with the learning goal that students will accurately encode and decode words with a targeted skill. Teachers must start with explicit instruction, just like they would in the classroom. In a remote setting, rather than using printed letter cards, use an online letter program such as Really Great Reading. Or, when it’s time for guided practice, have students create letter tiles on small pieces of paper to manipulate at home.

    Encourage participation by asking different groups to answer a question using a cue such as “Everyone wearing a red shirt unmute yourself and share out.” For individual practice, have students submit a picture of written work through digital platforms like Seesaw or Google Classroom. As you would in the classroom, form small groups for remediation or enrichment. You can schedule a breakout room or office hours for students who need more one-on-one support.

    2. Let parents in on the learning.

    Understandably, most parents are not experts in reading instruction. Part of our job during remote learning has been to provide parents with tools to support their children and give parents context and background about the instructional practices we use. Sharing the purpose of strategies and routines and offering specific ways to help at home is critical.

    I put together a bitmoji classroom for parents. This page includes a range of videos, from the technical side (the five pillars of literacy) to the practical (what is phoneme segmentation, and how can I do it at home?). When I communicate with parents, I offer this page as a resource for at-home practice. For those who are not easily able to help with work at home, they can at least build an understanding of the work their child is doing.

    3. Mix it up!

    One of the biggest complaints I have heard from teachers (and students) amid the pandemic is that they are teaching whole-group lessons for long blocks of time. This is not something we typically do in elementary school. So, let’s consider how that can be adjusted for virtual learning.

    What if you create small groups for learning centers? After setting up expectations, create five breakout rooms. Just as you would in the classroom, pop into each room for a few minutes to answer questions, check progress, and monitor behavior.

    Is there an opportunity for students to work in pairs, writing together? Create different Google slides, each with a prompt, and assign two students to each slide. To make it purposeful, come back together and have partners share out with the whole class.

    Do the students need to work on something independently? Have the students turn on their cameras, set a timer on the screen, and let them work at their own pace. Then, come back together to check on their status and make instructional decisions based on their progress.

    4. Take it off screen.

    Students need to read to learn to navigate text. Reading aloud to students or just guiding them through activities is not enough. Give students time to read away from the computer screen. I know releasing that control over to students, not knowing what they are doing when you can’t see them, can be scary. But I encourage you to give them off-screen tasks and gather feedback on how they do. Make the learning purposeful, and the students will be engaged in the task.

    For example, our third-grade students have to find text evidence from the nonfiction book Giant Squid: Searching for a Sea Monster by Mary M. Cerullo. When off screen, the students can look through the text to find interesting facts and write those down to share the next day. Students can use this information to create something—a paragraph, a drawing, or a diorama—allowing students to express creativity, own their learning, and demonstrate understanding.

     

    That there is a lot lost during remote learning is true. I miss the clamor of a full classroom talking excitedly about a favorite book, the coming together around the carpet for meetings and lessons, and the expressions of friendship you see on the playground and in the cafeteria. But if we get creative, focus on what matters, and work diligently to meet students’ needs, we can still teach in joyful and effective ways.

    Katy Tarasi is an elementary literacy coach in the Avonworth School District near Pittsburgh, PA, and a fellow with the Great Minds’ Wit & Wisdom English Language Arts team. In that capacity, she delivers professional development and coaching to educators around the United States.

    Read More
    • Teaching Tips
    • Writing
    • Topics
    • Student Level
    • Reading Specialist
    • Reading
    • Literacy Coach
    • Job Functions
    • Foundational Skills
    • Content Types
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Blog Posts
    • The Engaging Classroom
    • ~6 years old (Grade 1)
    • ~5 years old (Grade K)
    • ~4 years old (Grade Pre-K)

    Teaching and Testing the Alphabetic Principle in Kindergarten

    By Arlene C. Schulze
     | Nov 20, 2020

    Arlene teachingIn these stressful times, focusing on our main literacy goal for kindergartners—learning the alphabetic principle, which is the foundational skill of all writing and reading—is essential.

    ILA’s Literacy Glossary defines alphabetic principle as the concept that letters or groups of letters in alphabetic orthographies (i.e., written systems) represent the phonemes (sounds) of spoken language.

    Four decades ago, Carol Chomsky encouraged preschool, kindergarten, and first graders to try to write before they read because of the valuable practice they received from translating sound to print. Around that time, Charles Read demonstrated that some young children made up the spellings of the words they speak by listening to the individual sounds (phonemes) in words and then attempting to find written letters (graphemes) to represent those phonemes. Connecting sounds to letters in this manner is called invented spelling. Invented spelling not only helps develop the alphabetic principle but also is the best predictor of reading according to Charles Temple and colleagues, Donald Bear and colleagues, and Marie Clay.

    LG_Invented spelling definition

    Promoting invented spelling

    As a literacy consultant who has worked in more than 100 kindergarten classrooms over the past 34 years, I have found that teachers understand students actively construct their own literacy learning about phoneme–grapheme correspondences when they engage in the process of meaningful writing of their own choosing. However, this leads educators to seek out ways to help their students write with inventing spelling.

    Invented spelling can be challenging when students write random strings of symbols or mix numbers and shapes with mock letters. To help this issue, I devised Getting Ready, a daily learning structure that should precede writers’ workshop. Getting Ready uses two song strategies and three sound–letter connecting strategies.

    Getting Ready: Two song strategies

    The first song strategy, ABC Song Strategy, helps students find—and, when ready, write—letters of their choosing. It is sung to the tune of “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” and requires both an ABC chart for class use and individual ABC strips for each student to use as they write independently.

    The second song strategy, The Name Song, helps students hear beginning individual sounds in spoken words (phonemic awareness). It is sung to the tune of “Skip to My Lou.” I begin teaching this strategy with sound matching by having students try to match the sound I say with the beginning sound in one of their classmate’s names.

    When most of the class can successfully sound match, I proceed to sound isolation, which is basically a reverse of sound matching: I say a student’s name and the student’s classmates must isolate the first sound in the name. Students love playing with their classmates’ names like this.

    Getting Ready: Three sound–letter connecting strategies

    After kindergartners can isolate individual beginning sounds in classmate’s names, I proceed to teach three sound­­–letter connecting strategies.

    The first strategy shown in the video clip is Connecting Sound to Picture. Students isolate the beginning sound in a classmate's name and then look for a picture on the class ABC chart that begins with the same matching sound. 

    The second strategy shown is Connecting Sound to Letter Name. Students isolate the beginning sound in a classmate's name and then look at the class ABC chart and try to find a letter name that has the same sound.

    The third strategy shown is Connecting Sound to Classmate's Name. Students isolate the beginning sound in a classmate's name and then connect the sound to the first letter of that classmate's name. 

    I have observed kindergartners using these strategies on their own as they attempt to write in writers’ workshop. Continuing to guide students as they practice these strategies though the use of daily writing workshop conferences is most helpful.

    Verify the value

    To prove these strategies improve kindergartners’ understanding of the alphabetic principle, I use Clay’s Dictation Test as found in Clay’s An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement. This test is designed to check a student’s ability to hear individual sounds in words. However, it also checks the student’s understanding of the alphabetic principle.

    When Clay’s Dictation Test is administered individually to kindergartners, they attempt to write what they hear in the following sentence as it is read aloud very slowly:

    I can see the red boat that we are going to have a ride in.

    One point is scored for each sound heard and recorded appropriately as a letter. A perfect score is 37. 

    The following images, which are copies of tests I administered to students myself, show results from the student who scored the highest of the class (19/37) at the beginning of the year (image A) and who had a perfect score (37/37) at the end of the year (image B).

    Sample of student's test

    Compare this with the progress of the student who scored the lowest in the class (0/37) at the beginning of the year (test not shown). This student improved significantly (28/37) by the end of the year (see below).

    Second student test

    Notice the progress both students have made. That the rest of the kindergarten class was equally successful and scored somewhere between a 28 and 37 on Clay’s Dictation Test is worth noting.

    The results of Clay’s Dictation Test verify that all 20 students in this kindergarten class could write with invented spelling, which demonstrates an understanding of sound­–letter relationships, the alphabetic principle. All these students became writer–readers.

    I have seen similar results across the many kindergarten classes where writers’ workshop and the Getting Ready strategy were used as I have described. Knowledge of the alphabetical principle allows every student to be a writer–reader, and the strategies I have described are a highly effective way to teach it.

    Arlene C. Schulze is a longtime reading teacher and specialist. She holds a degree in elementary education from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and a master's degree in reading from the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (UWSP).

    She has been a K­–2 literacy consultant to three school systems in North Central Wisconsin and a literacy instructor in reading and language arts at UWSP for many years.  She is the author of the book Helping Children Become Readers Through Writing: A Guide to Writing Workshop in Kindergarten. She is currently coaching kindergarten teachers and tutoring struggling readers in northern Wisconsin.

    Read More
Back to Top

Categories

Recent Posts

Archives